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Degradation of marine and coastal ecosystem can be seen everywhere and Goa is no exception. Biodiversity provide important services to mankind and needs to be protected. Goa is endowed with varied microhabitats along its 105 long coast line. These habitats are home to diverse forms of life about which little is known. The coastal waters serve as nursery to fishes and other animals which are exploited commercially. The present communication reviews the current status on the taxonomic knowledge of the coastal biodiversity of Goa. The coastal water of Goa abound in flora and fauna. The information on major fauna and flora of Goa is sufficiently available. There is, however, some lacunae in our knowledge on invertebrate subgroups, such as sponges, octocorals, ctenophores, and tunicates and minor phyla. The biodiversity of specialized ecosystems continued to be inadequately known and remains a challenge to specialists from Goa coast. Threat to coastal and marine biodiversity due to climate change and environmental degradation are intensifying with time. The anthropogenic activities are causing damage to pristine coastal ecosystems. The loss of biodiversity will be felt in greater strength by future generation. The present knowledge on coastal biodiversity warrants continued taxonomic research in the least-studied or unknown groups of hot spot areas in the light of existing threats to marine biodiversity. It is suggested that further research on new species occurrences in the least studied groups should be continued to update the data and improve our knowledge. The appropriate measures will be required to protect the rich biodiversity resources of Goa.