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Blood Lead Levels and their Relationship with Lead in Ambien Air in Children in the Area of used Lead-Acid Battery in Depok City, Indonesia


Affiliations
1 National Institute of Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
 

The informal Used Lead-Acid Battery (ULAB) activities impact air pollution from smoke, dust, and waste containing lead. This study aims to determine the effect of air lead concentration on Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) in children aged 7-13 years in the informally ULAB area in the city of Depok. This study uses secondary data from the 2014 Special Research on Environmental Pollution for Traditional Battery Processing conducted by the National Institute of Research and Development. Cross-sectional study design, the study population was children aged 7-13 years in selected ULAB areas, with a total sample of 94 people. Each respondent took a venous blood sample and measured it with a portable blood lead gauge. The concentration of lead in the air was measured using a High Volume Air Sampler and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Normality test on BLLs and lead variables in the air. Linear regression test to determine the relationship between lead variables in the air and BLLs. The respondents’ average BLLs were 8.58 μg/dL, with intervals of 3.8 - 14.6 μg/dL. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.777) and statistically significant (p = 0.000) between air lead levels and BLLs. It has a lively pattern equation, meaning that if the lead level in the air increases, the BLLs will increase. Although BLL in children is still below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended, there needs to be measured to prevent children from being exposed to lead, because low BLLs for long periods can endanger children’s health. 


Keywords

Blood Lead Levels, Children, Informally Used Lead-Acid Battery, Lead in the Air
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  • Blood Lead Levels and their Relationship with Lead in Ambien Air in Children in the Area of used Lead-Acid Battery in Depok City, Indonesia

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Authors

Basuki Rachmat
National Institute of Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Dasuki
National Institute of Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Helper Sahat Parulian Manalu
National Institute of Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Elsa Elsi
National Institute of Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract


The informal Used Lead-Acid Battery (ULAB) activities impact air pollution from smoke, dust, and waste containing lead. This study aims to determine the effect of air lead concentration on Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) in children aged 7-13 years in the informally ULAB area in the city of Depok. This study uses secondary data from the 2014 Special Research on Environmental Pollution for Traditional Battery Processing conducted by the National Institute of Research and Development. Cross-sectional study design, the study population was children aged 7-13 years in selected ULAB areas, with a total sample of 94 people. Each respondent took a venous blood sample and measured it with a portable blood lead gauge. The concentration of lead in the air was measured using a High Volume Air Sampler and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Normality test on BLLs and lead variables in the air. Linear regression test to determine the relationship between lead variables in the air and BLLs. The respondents’ average BLLs were 8.58 μg/dL, with intervals of 3.8 - 14.6 μg/dL. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.777) and statistically significant (p = 0.000) between air lead levels and BLLs. It has a lively pattern equation, meaning that if the lead level in the air increases, the BLLs will increase. Although BLL in children is still below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended, there needs to be measured to prevent children from being exposed to lead, because low BLLs for long periods can endanger children’s health. 


Keywords


Blood Lead Levels, Children, Informally Used Lead-Acid Battery, Lead in the Air

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jeoh%2F2020%2F26134