Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Morphometric Attributes and their Controlling Elements in Himalayan Snow Trout, Schizothorax labiatus inhabiting Vishav Stream of South Kashmir, India


Affiliations
1 Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar – 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar – 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
 

The morphometric analysis was carried out in indigenous cyprinid food fish, Schizothorax labiatus (a species of snow trout) collected from Vishav stream, a perennial cold water stream of Kashmir valley, India, wherein various morphometric characters viz., Total Length (TL), Standard Length (SL), Fork Length (FL), Pre-dorsal Length (PDL), Pre-pectoral Length (PPL), Pre-pelvic Length (PPeL), Pre-anal Length (PAL), Anal Fin Length (AL), Head Length (HL), Height of Dorsal Fin (HOD), Snout Length (SnL), Body Depth (BD), Eye Diameter (ED), Inter Orbital Length (IOL), Caudal Fin Length (CL) and Caudal Depth (CD) of 104 fish specimens were measured, correlated and analysed. The morphometric data was calculated in the percentage of total length except SnL, ED and IOL which were calculated in the percentage of HL. The result revealed that the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.770 to 0.995 in proportion to TL and 0.706 to 0.859 in proportion to HL which indicates that all the morphometric characters are highly correlated. All the correlations were significant at the level of p<0.01. During the investigation, the results revealed that in the % of TL, 8 characters were found to be genetically controlled 4 characters as intermediate and none character as environmentally controlled one. In the % of HL, 1 character was found to be included in intermediate character, 2 characters in environmentally controlled characters and none in purely genetically controlled one. As revealed by the regression analysis of different morphometric characters in proportion to TL, the maximum growth was obtained for FL (b = 0.9664) and the minimum growth was obtained for AL (b = 0.0655) and in proportion to HL, the maximum growth was obtained for IOL (b = 0.4689) and the minimum growth was obtained for ED (b = 0.0852).


Keywords

Correlation Coefficient, Kashmir, Morphometric Analysis, Schizothorax labiatus, Vishav Stream/
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Nayman WH. Growth and ecology of fish population. J Anim Ecol. 1965; 20:201–19.
  • Langer S, Tripathi NK, Khajuria B. Morphometric and meristic study of golden Mahaseer (Tor putitora) from Jhajjar stream (J and K), India. Res J Anim Vet Fishery Sci. 2013; 1(7):1–4.
  • Vladykov VD. Environmental and taxonomic characters of fishes. Trans Roy Can Inst. 1934; 20:99–140.
  • McHugh JL. Geographic variation in the Pacific herring. Copeia.1954; 1954(2):139–51. https://doi.org/10.2307/1440334 5. Allendorf FW, Ryman N, Utter F. Genetics and fishery management: Past, present and future in population genetics and fisheries management. Seattle, WA and London: University of Washington press; 1987. p. 1–20.
  • Wimberger PH. Plasticity of fish body shape. The effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.1992; 45(3):197–218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1992 .tb00640.x
  • Hossain MA, Nahiduzzaman M, Saha D, Khanam MU, Alam MS. Landmark-based morphometric and meristic variations of the endangered Carp, Kalibaus labeo calbasu, from stocks of two isolated rivers, the Jamuna and Halda, and a hatchery. Zoological Studies. 2010; 49(4):556–63.
  • Hourston AS. Homing by Canada’s west coast herring to management units and divisions as indicated by tag recoveries.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 1982; 39(10):1414–22. https://doi.org/10.1139/f82-190
  • Iles TD, Sinclair M. Atlantic herring: Stock discreteness and abundance. Science. 1982; 215(4533):627–33. PMid: 17842372.https://doi.org/10.1126/science.215.4533.627
  • Hammami I, BaHrI-Sfar L, Kaoueche M, Grenouillet G, Lek S, Kara MH, Ben Hassine OK. Morphological characterization of striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus, Sparidae) in some Mediterranean lagoons. Cybium. 2013; 37(1-2):27–139.
  • Thompson JD. Phenotypic plasticity as a component of evolutionary change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 1991; 6(8):246–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(91)90070-E
  • Begg GA, Friedland KD, Pearce JB. Stock identification and its role in stock assessment and fisheries management: an overview. Fisheries Research. 1999; 43(1-3):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00062-4
  • Tandon KK, Johal MS, Bala S. Morphometry of Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton) from Kanjli wetland, Punjab, India. Panjab University Research Journal (Science). 1993; 43(1-4):73–8.
  • Johal MS, Tandon KK, Sandhu GS. Mahseer in Lacustrine Waters, Gobindsagar Reservoir. Morphometry of Tor putitora. Mahseer the Game Fish, Nautiyal, P. (Ed.). Dehradun, Rachna, Srinagar, Garhwal: Jagdamba Prakashan Publisher; 1994. p. 67–85.
  • Mir JI, Shabir R, Mir FA. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Schizopyge curvifrons (Heckel, 1838) from River Jhelum, Kashmir, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 2012; 4(3):325–9.
  • Hajam RA, Hamid A, Ahmad DN, Bhat SU. Morphometric analysis of Vishav drainage basin using Geo-spatial Technology (GST). International Research Journal of Geology and Mining.2013; 3(3):136–46.
  • Talwar PK, Jhingran AG. Talwar PK, Jhingran AG. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. 1991.
  • Mirza MR. A contribution to the systematics of the Schizothoracine fishes (Pisces: Cyprinidae) with the description of three new tribes. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 1991; 23:339–41.
  • Kullander SO, Fang F, Delling B, Ahlander E. The fishes of the Kashmir Valley. River Jhelum, Kashmir Valley. Impacts on the aquatic environment. Goteborg: Swedmar; 1999. p. 99-167.
  • Hoden MJ, Raitt DF. Manual of fisheries science. Part 2. Methods of resource investigation and their application. FAO Fish Tech Pap. 1974; 115:1–214.
  • Jayaram KC. Freshwater fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka. 1981. p. 475.
  • Allen GR. Toxotes kimberleyensis, a new species of archerfish (Pisces: Toxotidae) from fresh waters of Western Australia.Records-Australian Museum. 2004; 56(2):225–30. https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.56.2004.1423
  • Price SA, Holzman R, Near TJ, Wainwright PC. Coral reefs promote the evolution of morphological diversity and ecological novelty in labrid fishes. Ecology Letters. 2011; 14(5):462–9. PMid: 21385297. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01607.x
  • Farre M, Tuset VM, Maynou F, Recasens L, Lombarte A.Geometric morphology as an alternative for measuring the diversity of fish assemblages. Ecological Indicators. 2013; 29:159– 66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.12.005
  • Ryman N, Lagercrantz UL, Andersson L, Chakraborty R, Rosenberg R. Lack of correspondence between genetic and morphologic variability patterns in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Heredity. 1984; 53(3):687–704. https://doi .org/10.1038/hdy.1984.127
  • Cheverud JM. A comparison of genetic and phenotypic correlations. Evolution. 1988; 42(5):958–68. PMid: 28581166.https://doi.org/10.2307/2408911
  • Swain DP, Foote CJ. Stocks and chameleons: The use of phenotypic variation in stock identification. Fisheries Research. 1999; 43(13):113–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00069-7
  • Bhatt JP, Nautiyal P, Singh HR. Racial structure of Himalayan mahseer, Tor putitora (Hamilton) in the river Ganga between Rishikesh and Hardwar. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.1998; 68(6):587–90.
  • Johal MS, Negi RK, Negi T. Age and growth of golden mahseer Tor putitora from Pong reservoir, Himachal Pradesh, India. Him J Env Zools. 2003; 17(2):17–29.
  • Negi RK, Negi T. Analysis of morphometric characters of Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray 1832) from the Uttarkashi District of Uttarakhand State, India. Journal of Biological Sciences.2010; 10(6):536–40. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2010.536.540
  • Ujjania NC, Kumar G, Langar RK, Krishna G. Biometric studies of mahseer (Tor tor. Ham. 1822) from Bari talab (Udaipur), India. International Journal of Innovations in Bio-Sciences. 2012; 2(3):38–141.
  • Vase VK, Reddy DA, Choudhury SR, Balakrishna CH, Satyanaryana Y, Nagesh TS, Das SK. Morphometry and meristic counts of Bombay duck, Harpodon nehereus (Hamilton, 1822) along Sunderban region of West Bengal, India. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2014; 4(3):95–105.
  • Bhat MA, Mohammad N, Masarat S. Morphometric characters of freshwater fish Cyprinus sp. collected from River Jhelum, Kashmir. International Journal of Innovative Research in Advance Studies. 2016; 3(4):117–20.
  • Maji D, Pradhan A, Bhattacharya S, Mahapatra BK. Morphomeristic characteristics of a rare species Synaptura Commersonnii (Lacepede, 1802) from North-East coast of India, West Bengal. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2016; 4:237–41.
  • Krishand NR, Tarana N. Analysis of morphometric characters of Schizothorax richardonii (Gray, 1832) from the Uttarkashi District of Uttrakhand State, India. Journal of Biological Sciences.2010; 10(6):536–40. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2010.536.540
  • Bhat FA, Yousuf AR, Balkhi MH, Mahdi MD, Shah FA. Lengthweight relationship and morphometric characteristics of Schizothorax spp. in the River Lidder of Kashmir. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 2010; 57(2):73–6.
  • Ahmad S, Hussain MA, Alam MM. Morphometric relationships and condition factors of two freshwater barbs, Puntius sophore and Puntius ticto from the Padma river of Bangladesh.Trends in Fisheries Research. 2013; 2(3):15–9. https://doi .org/10.12966/fbls.03.04.2014
  • Bhat A., Balkhi, MH, Najar AM, Yousuf AR. Distribution pattern, density and morphometric characteristics of Shizothoracines (Snow trout) in Lidder river, Kashmir. The Bioscan. 2013; 8(2):363–9.
  • Bagenal TB, Tesch FW. Age and growth (Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters). T. Bagenal, Ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1978. p. 101–36.
  • Hoque MA, Hossain MA. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of the cat fish Mystus vittatus (Bloch) (Cypriniformes: Bagridae). University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University. 1992; 10:113–4.
  • Froese R. Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: History, meta‐analysis and recommendations.Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 2006; 22(4):241–53. https://doi .org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x
  • Alam MM, Jahan SN, Hussain MA, De M, Goutham-Bharathi MP, Magalhaes AB, Mazlan AG, Simon KD. Length-length relationship, length-weight relationship and condition factor of freshwater fish species of Bangladesh. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation. 2013; 6(5):498–509.
  • Sharma NK, Mir JI, Pandey N, Singh R. Morphometric and meristic characteristics of Birdi Loach, Botia birdi (Chaudhuri, 1909) from a Tributary of Indus Basin, Jammu and Kashmir, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 2014; 6(3):262–6.
  • Gharaei A. Morphometric and meristic studies of snow trout Schizothorax zarudnyi (Nikolskii, 1897) as a threatened endemic fish. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 2012; 4(4): 426–9.
  • Poria M, Nouri F, Ghanbary K, Heshmatzad P. Interrelationship between morphometric variables and body weight Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843) evaluated by path analysis in Gamasiab River of Kermanshah Province, West of Iran. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 2013; 5(6):674–9.

Abstract Views: 1

PDF Views: 1




  • Morphometric Attributes and their Controlling Elements in Himalayan Snow Trout, Schizothorax labiatus inhabiting Vishav Stream of South Kashmir, India

Abstract Views: 1  |  PDF Views: 1

Authors

Mohammad Yasir Arafat
Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar – 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Yahya Bakhtiyar
Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar – 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Abstract


The morphometric analysis was carried out in indigenous cyprinid food fish, Schizothorax labiatus (a species of snow trout) collected from Vishav stream, a perennial cold water stream of Kashmir valley, India, wherein various morphometric characters viz., Total Length (TL), Standard Length (SL), Fork Length (FL), Pre-dorsal Length (PDL), Pre-pectoral Length (PPL), Pre-pelvic Length (PPeL), Pre-anal Length (PAL), Anal Fin Length (AL), Head Length (HL), Height of Dorsal Fin (HOD), Snout Length (SnL), Body Depth (BD), Eye Diameter (ED), Inter Orbital Length (IOL), Caudal Fin Length (CL) and Caudal Depth (CD) of 104 fish specimens were measured, correlated and analysed. The morphometric data was calculated in the percentage of total length except SnL, ED and IOL which were calculated in the percentage of HL. The result revealed that the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.770 to 0.995 in proportion to TL and 0.706 to 0.859 in proportion to HL which indicates that all the morphometric characters are highly correlated. All the correlations were significant at the level of p<0.01. During the investigation, the results revealed that in the % of TL, 8 characters were found to be genetically controlled 4 characters as intermediate and none character as environmentally controlled one. In the % of HL, 1 character was found to be included in intermediate character, 2 characters in environmentally controlled characters and none in purely genetically controlled one. As revealed by the regression analysis of different morphometric characters in proportion to TL, the maximum growth was obtained for FL (b = 0.9664) and the minimum growth was obtained for AL (b = 0.0655) and in proportion to HL, the maximum growth was obtained for IOL (b = 0.4689) and the minimum growth was obtained for ED (b = 0.0852).


Keywords


Correlation Coefficient, Kashmir, Morphometric Analysis, Schizothorax labiatus, Vishav Stream/

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jeoh%2F2020%2F24782