Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Association of Blood Cholinesterase with Sexual Differences in Metabolic Health Risks among Villagers from Pesticide-Treated Farming Villages


Affiliations
1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor - 43400, Malaysia
2 Centre for Environment and Climate Change, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi – 110002, Delhi, India
3 Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Viet Nam
4 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City – 701, Taiwan, Province of China
 

The physiological differences between men and women have resulted in discrepancies of pesticides' toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic mechanism. It is speculated that women are more prone to exposure to pesticides than men, which increases the risks to their metabolic health. This study aims to establish a link between long-term, low-level exposure to pesticides and its potential adverse metabolic health risks in farming villages by using the parameters of body composition and acetylcholinesterase activity as indicators. The result indicates that the blood cholinesterase levels in males are proportionally lower than in females. The distinction of farmer and non-farmer as an occupation often shows a different degree of metabolic health symptoms unique to the sex. In addition, the sexual differences in the correlation of the level of blood cholinesterase with the body mass index, visceral muscle, body fat and visceral fat among the farming communities in the same farming village are of considerable interest. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for women's vulnerability to pesticide exposure and indicate potential opportunities for early prevention and surveillance for these working women in the farming community.

Keywords

Acetylcholinesterase, Body Composition, Blood Pressure, Sex, Metabolic Health Risks.
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Mispan MR, Haron SH, Ismail BS, Abd Rahman NF, Khalid K, Abdul Rasid MZ. The use of pesticides in agriculture area, cameron highlands. International Journal of Scientific Progress and Research. 2015; 15(1): 19-22.
  • Lim KG. A review of adult obesity research in Malaysia. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 2016; 71(1): 1-19.
  • Azuwani AR, Noor Khairiah K, Cheong YZ, Kok CC, Aw NSL, Nadiah MS, Abdul Rashid K. Body fat percentage distribution of an orang asli group (Aborigines) in cameron highlands, Malaysia.Malaysia Journal of Nutrition. 2013; 19(2): 205-14.
  • Abdul Hamid Z, Harun Z, Lubis SH, Mohamed N, Ishak I, Othman HF, et al. Adoption of the mobile health screening programme for farming communities: A study among pesticide-exposed farmers from North East of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Health Sciences. 2014. DOI: 10.17576/jskm-2014-1202-09. https://doi.org/10.17576/JSKM-2014-1202-09.
  • Soldin OP, Mattison DR. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013; 48(3): 143-57. https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200948030-00001. PMid:19385708 PMCid:PMC3644551.
  • Ngowi AV, Maeda DN, Partanen TJ. Assessment of the ability of health care providers to treat and prevent adverse health effects of pesticides in agricultural areas of Tanzania. Int. J. Occup. Med .Environ. Health. 2001; 14(4): 349-56.
  • Mnif W, Hassine AIH, et al. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: A review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health.2011; 8(6): 2265-303. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8062265 .PMid:21776230, PMCid:PMC3138025.
  • Qu W, Suri RPS, Bi X, Sheng G, Fu J. Exposure of young mothers and newborns to OrganoChlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Guangzhou; China. Sci. Total Environ. 2010; 408: 3133-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.023. PMid:20471063.
  • Michele LM, Emma K, Erin M, Claudia L, Michael R. La F, John WN, Christoph B. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring. PLoS ONE. 2014. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103337. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103337. PMid:25076055, PMCid:PMC4116186.
  • Lim KG, Cheah WK. A review of metabolic syndrome research in Malaysia. Med. J. Malaysia. 2016; 71(1): 20-28.
  • Botella B, Crespo J, Rivas A, et al. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain. Environmental Research. 2004; 96(1): 34-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2003.10.001. PMid:15261782.
  • Janssen I, Steven BH, Wang ZM, Ross R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 year old.J. Appl. Physiol. 2000; 89(1): 81-88. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.1.81. PMid:10904038.
  • Eaton DL, et al. Review of the toxicology of chlorpyrifos with an emphasis on human exposure and neurodevelopment. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2008; 38 (Suppl 2): 1-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440802272158. PMid:18726789.
  • Inacio Lunkes G, Stefanello F, Sausen Lunkes D, Maria Morsch V, Schetinger MR, Goncalves JF. Serum cholinesterase activity in diabetes and associated pathologies. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2006; 72(1): 28-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2005.08.009. PMid:16233931.
  • Alcantara VM, Oliveira LC, Rea RR, Suplicy HL, Chautard-FreireMaia EA. Butyrylcholinesterase activity and metabolic syndrome in obese patients. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2005; 43(3): 285-88. https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2005.048. PMid:15843232.
  • Karami-Mohajeri S, Abdollahi M. Toxic influence of organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides on cellular metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates: A systematic review. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2010; 30(9): 1119-40. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327110388959. PMid:21071550.
  • Richard SA, Frank EA, D’Souza CJM. Correlation between cholinesterase and paraoxonase 1 activities: Case series of pesticide poisoning subjects. Bioimpacts. 2013; 3(3): 119-22.
  • Himbergen TM, Tits LJH, Roest M, Stalenhoef AFH. The Story of PON1: How an organophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme is becoming a player in cardiovascular medicine. The Journal of Medicine. 2006; 64(2): 34-38.
  • Huen K, Harley K, Brooks J, et al. Development changes in PON1 enzyme activity in young children and effects of PON1 polymorphisms. Environmental Health Perspective. 2009; 117(10): 1632-38. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900870. PMid: 20019917 PMCid: PMC2790521.
  • Cost LG, Cole TB, Furlong CE. Polymorphisms of Paraoxonase (PON1) and their significance in clinical toxicology of organophosphates. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 2003; 41(1). https://doi .org/10.1081/CLT-120018269. PMid:12645966.
  • Vicky PC, Gao Y, Geng L, Stout MB. Butyrylcholinesterase deficiency promotes adipose tissue growth and hepatic lipid accumulation in male mice on high-fat diet. Endocrinology. 2016; 157(8): 3086-95. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2016-1166. PMid:27300766, PMCid: PMC4967128.
  • Iwasaki T, Yoneda M, Nakajima A, Terauchi Y. Serum butyrylcholinesterase is strongly associated with adiposity, the serum lipid profile and insulin resistance. Intern. Med. 2007; 46(19): 1633-39. https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.46.0049. PMid:17917325.
  • Inacio Lunkes G, Stefanello F, Sausen Lunkes D, Maria Morsch V, Schetinger MR, Goncalves JF. Serum cholinesterase activity in diabetes and associated pathologies. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2006; 72(1): 28-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2005.08.009 .PMid:16233931.

Abstract Views: 9

PDF Views: 3




  • Association of Blood Cholinesterase with Sexual Differences in Metabolic Health Risks among Villagers from Pesticide-Treated Farming Villages

Abstract Views: 9  |  PDF Views: 3

Authors

Vivien How
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor - 43400, Malaysia
Shyamli Singh
Centre for Environment and Climate Change, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi – 110002, Delhi, India
Dang Quang Thinh
Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Viet Nam
How Ran Guo
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City – 701, Taiwan, Province of China
Raihanah Chokeli
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor - 43400, Malaysia
Nurul Syazani Yuswir
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor - 43400, Malaysia

Abstract


The physiological differences between men and women have resulted in discrepancies of pesticides' toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic mechanism. It is speculated that women are more prone to exposure to pesticides than men, which increases the risks to their metabolic health. This study aims to establish a link between long-term, low-level exposure to pesticides and its potential adverse metabolic health risks in farming villages by using the parameters of body composition and acetylcholinesterase activity as indicators. The result indicates that the blood cholinesterase levels in males are proportionally lower than in females. The distinction of farmer and non-farmer as an occupation often shows a different degree of metabolic health symptoms unique to the sex. In addition, the sexual differences in the correlation of the level of blood cholinesterase with the body mass index, visceral muscle, body fat and visceral fat among the farming communities in the same farming village are of considerable interest. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for women's vulnerability to pesticide exposure and indicate potential opportunities for early prevention and surveillance for these working women in the farming community.

Keywords


Acetylcholinesterase, Body Composition, Blood Pressure, Sex, Metabolic Health Risks.

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jeoh%2F2020%2F24418