Journal of Modern Physics
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP
<div id="i-scholarabout">Journal of Modern Physics is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in modern physics. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of modern physics.</div>Scientific Research Publishing Inc.en-USJournal of Modern Physics2153-1196On the Origin of the CO<SUB>2</SUB> Climate Warming Fallacy
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85838
We resurrect the 1896 paper in the frame of which the great Swedish physical chemist Svante August Arrhenius explains why what he called "aqueous vapour" and "carbonic acid" should be regarded as determining climate warming agents. We suggest that the designation "Green House Effect Gas" as applied to carbon dioxide should be officially banished from the climate vocabulary as being misleading.Jean-Paul Auffray2015-12-012015-12-016The Ni's Solution for Neutron Star and Outward Oriented Gravitational Attraction in its Interior
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85840
In 2011, Jun Ni published the solution of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations describing the structure of stable neutron stars, which implies that 1) there is no upper mass limit of these objects, 2) their outer physical surface is always situated above the corresponding event horizon, and 3) the object is a hollow sphere with the inner physical surface and cavity inside. In our paper, we propose to "purify" the general relativity, as the geometrical theory, from the concept of mass. If we get rid of the concept of mass and Newtonian-type potential, then we obtain such the behavior of gravity which results in the above mentioned stable Ni's object. It is farther pointed out that the distribution of matter, which is observed as spherically symmetric by the observer in its center, is not longer observed as spherically symmetric by an observer aside the center in a curved spacetime of general relativity. This fact implies, in contrast to the Newtonian physics, the nonzero and outward oriented gravitational attraction of upper layers of star. Ni considered positive energy density and pressure. In addition, gravity had everywhere attractive character. No "exotic" assumption was made. Hence, there is no reason why his concept of hollow sphere should not be applicable to the models of real objects.Lubos Neslusan2015-12-012015-12-016On the Relationship between the Geometry of Space-Time and its Information Content
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85842
We use an information-consistency or, equivalently, a thermodynamic equilibrium condition to derive Einstein's equations, both in case of a gravitational and an electrostatic field. We thus show the equivalence of an information-theoretic and a thermodynamic viewpoint in the analysis of the geometry of space-time.Andreas E. Schlatter2015-12-012015-12-016Probability and Curvature in Physics
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85843
Probability concept in physics entered into statistical physics and quantum physics by molecules kinematics; and curvature concept in physics as applying differential geometry to physics, entered into analytical mechanics long ago. Along with introducing space-time curvature concept into general relativity, curvature concept became more important; gauge field theory regards field intensity as curvature of fibre bundles. Curvature concept in quantum mechanics germinated from original derivation of Schrodinger equation; catastrophe scientist Rene Thom advanced curvature interpretations of φ function and entropy according to differential geometry. Guoqiu Zhao advanced curvature interpretation of quantum mechanics; this new interpretation made relativity theory and quantum mechanics more harmonious, and regarded φ function as a curvature function. So far Zhao's quantum curvature interpretation is nearest to Schrodinger's scientific thought and Einstein's physics ideal.Xinzhong Wu2015-12-012015-12-016Randomization of Energy and Momentum in Statistical Mechanics
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85846
Particle-particle collisions in materials give rise to a particle distribution in energy and momentum in such a way that a most probable distribution is realized. I will show that an evaporating liquid generates a molecular imbalance in the equilibrium energy distribution. The molecular collisions by their inherent nature are able to repair the imbalance and in so doing it is shown that the liquids cool down. Similarly an external electric field creates substantial imbalance in the momentum distribution for the electrons in ionic semiconductors. Electron-electron collisions are able to restore the imbalance and as a consequence, similar to the evaporating liquid, the electron gas loses thermal energy and cools down.V. V. Paranjape2015-12-012015-12-016Electrodynamics of the Electron Orbital Motion in the Hydrogen Atom Considered in Reference to the Microstructure of the Electron Particle and its Spin
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85848
Electrodynamics of the one-electron currents due to the circular orbital motion of the electron particle in the hydrogen atom has been examined. The motion is assumed to be induced by the time change of the magnetic field in the atom. A characteristic point is that the electric resistance calculated for the motion is independent of the orbit index and its size is similar to that obtained earlier experimentally for the planar free-electron-like structures considered in the integer quantum Hall effect. Other current parameters like conductivity and the relaxation time behave in a way similar to that being typical for metals. A special attention was attached to the relations between the current intensity and magnetic field. A correct reproduction of this field with the aid of the Biot-Savart law became possible when the geometrical microstructure of the electron particle has been explicitly taken into account. But the same microstructure properties do influence also the current velocity. In fact the current suitable for the Biot-Savart law should have a speed characteristic for a spinning electron particle and not that of a spinless electron circulating along the orbit of the original Bohr model.Stanislaw Olszewski2015-12-012015-12-016A New Information Soliton to Resist Decaying of the Excitation Based on the External Field Interaction
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85851
In this work, we reveal possibility using information soliton to resist senescence of certain important bio-excitations (such as Davydov solitons) which play a fundamental role in information processing of life. For this goal, a type of external field interaction with original system is introduced. This field enables the total system to be described by a nonlinear Master equation. Then we found that the nonlinear term in the equation drives the initial excitation to evolve as a kind of information soliton asymptotically. It is this information soliton to resist decaying of the excitations. This provides a constructive way to prolong age of biological excitations by exerting an external field, which forms a basis used in medical devices or treatments.Qiao BiKongzhi Song2015-12-012015-12-016The Universal Expression for the Amplitude Square in Quantum Electrodynamics
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85855
The universal expression for the amplitude square ‖̅u<sub>f</sub>Mu<sub>i</sub>‖<sup>2</sup> for any matrix of interaction M is derived. It has obvious covariant form. It allows the avoidance of calculation of products of the Dirac's matrices traces and allows easy calculation of cross-sections of any different processes with polarized and unpolarized particles.Konstantin KarplyukOleksandr Zhmudskyy2015-12-012015-12-016A Computer Program for the Newman-Janis Algorithm
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85858
A REDUCE code for the Newman-Janis algorithm is described. This algorithm is intended to include rotation into nonrotating solutions of the Einstein field equations with spherically symmetry or perturbed spherically symmetry and has been successfully applied to many spacetimes. The applicability of the code is restricted to metrics containing potentials of the form 1/r.Carlos Gutierrez-ChavezFrancisco Frutos-AlfaroIvan Cordero-GarciaJavier Bonatti-Gonzalez2015-12-012015-12-016Entanglement in the Quantum Phase Transition of the Half-Integer Spin One-Dimensional Heisenberg Model
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85865
We use the Bethe's ansatz method to study the entanglement of spinons in the quantum phase transition of half integer spin one-dimensional magnetic chains known as quantum wires. We calculate the entanglement in the limit of the number of particles N < ∞. We obtain an abrupt change in the entanglement next the quantum phase transition point of the anisotropy parameter Δ = 1 from the gapped phase Δ > 1 to gapless phase Δ < 1.Leonardo S. Lima2015-12-012015-12-016The Spinning Period of a Free Electron and the Periods of Spin and Orbital Motions of Electron in Atomic States
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85866
The spinning period for a free electron and the periods of spin and orbital motion of the electron in an atomic state have been calculated. We have shown that for a free electron the spinning period is: (T<sub>s</sub> ) free = 1.9×10<sup>-20</sup>s . But in the atomic case we show that, both the spin and the orbital periods depend on the quantum numbers n, m<sub>1</sub>, m<sub>s</sub> and the effective Lande-g factor, g* which is a function of the quantum number l of the atomic state ls ‹n, l, m<sub>1</sub>, m<sub>s</sub>› given in Dirac notation. We have also calculated these periods for the ground state and some excited states-hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms. For atomic states the approximate values of spinning period are (T<sub>s</sub>)<sub>atomic</sub> ≅ 10<sup>-21</sup> s and the related orbital periods are: (T<sub>s</sub>)<sub>atomic</sub> = (10<sup>-16</sup>-10<sup>-15</sup>)s. Therefore atto-second processes which are related to the pulse of 10<sup>-18</sup>s will filter the orbital motion of the electron but will be long enough to detect the details of the spin motion, such as flip-flops.Ziya SaglamMesude SaglamS. Burcin BayramTim Horton2015-12-012015-12-016The Explanation for the Origin of the Higgs Scalar and for the Yukawa Couplings by the <I>Spin-Charge-Family</I> Theory
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85867
The spin-charge-family theory is a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories, but with two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of spins. The SO(13,1) representation of one kind of spins manifests in d = (3 + 1) all the properties of family members as assumed by the standard model; the second kind of spins explains the appearance of families. The gauge fields of the first kind, carrying the space index m = (0,...,3), manifest in d = (3 + 1) all the vector gauge fields assumed by the standard model. The gauge fields of both kinds of spins, which carry the space index (7, 8) gaining at the electroweak break nonzero vacuum expectation values, manifest in d = (3 + 1) as scalar fields with the properties of the Higgs scalar of the standard model with respect to the weak and the hyper charge (±1/2 and ±1/2, respectively), while they carry additional quantum numbers in adjoint representations, offering correspondingly the explanation for the scalar Higgs and the Yukawa couplings, predicting the fourth family and the existence of several scalar fields. The paper 1) explains why in this theory the gauge fields are with the scalar index s = (5,6,7,8) doublets with respect to the weak and the hyper charge, while they are with respect to all the other charges in the adjoint representations; 2) demonstrates that the spin connection fields manifest as the Kaluza-Klein vector gauge fields, which arise from the vielbeins; and 3) explains the role of the vielbeins and of both kinds of the spin connection fields.Norma Susana Mankoc Borstnik2015-12-012015-12-016The Effect of Light on the CVC of Strained p-n-Junction in a Strong Microwave Field
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85868
For the first time the effect of light on the CVC of strained p-n-junction in a strong microwave field is examined. It is shown that the deformation and the microwave field increase the current through p-n-junction, and the light decreases it. The mechanism of this phenomenon is explained by the fact that under heating of the charge carriers by microwave field the recombination current arises, and under the action of light the generation current arises which are directed oppositely. And under the influence of the deformation the band gap of the semiconductor will be changed.Muhammadjon Gulomkodirovich Dadamirzaev2015-12-012015-12-016Dirac's "Holes" are the True Antielectrons and Real Particles of Antimatter
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85871
Experimental and theoretical studies performed by the author showed that electric and magnetic spinor particles as spinors, i.e. particles of Matter so and Antispinors, particles of Antimatter, are structural components of atoms and substance. Together with electric spinors, for example, electrons in the structures of atoms and substances in same quantities, there are real electric antispinors, i.e. the true antielectrons, which are not to be confused with electronic vacancies or positrons. Atomic-shaped electromagnetic structures, consisting of electric and magnetic spinor particles, such as nucleons and atoms, represent a Physical Mass. A characteristic property of all varieties of Physical Mass is the ability to emit a gravitational field which is a vortex electromagnetic field. Sources of the gravitational field are joint orbital currents of electric and magnetic charges in the compositions of atomic or nucleon shells. The main reason that the real antielectrons turned out in the Physical sciences under the guise of Dirac's "holes" or vacancies of electrons, is the Physics of the confinement of these particles in atoms and a substance that is fundamentally different from the confinement of electrons. So, namely Physics confinement of the magnetic spinor particles and electric antispinors in atoms is the main "culprit" creating a fallacious concept of purely electronic atomic shells. The main contributions to the formation of the above-mentioned misconceptions did as J. C. Maxwell with its primitive-surface electromagnetic concept so and P. Dirac, with his erroneous theory of electronic vacancies or "holes".Robert A. Sizov2015-12-012015-12-016Theoretical Calculation of the Low-Lying Electronic States of the Molecule ScSe
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85875
Theoretical investigation of the lowest electronic states of ScSe molecule, in the representation 2s<sup>+1</sup>Λ<sup>(+/−)</sup>, has been performed via CASSCF and MRCI + Q (single and double excitations with Davidson correction) calculations. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs), permanent dipole moment curves (PDMCs), and spectroscopic constants are reported for the 14 lowest electronic states. The comparison of the present results with the rare available theoretical data in literature shows an overall good agreement. To the best of our knowledge, 13 electronic states of the ScSe molecule are not yet investigated either experimentally or theoretically; they are investigated in the present work for the first time.Rawad HalabiMahmoud Korek2015-12-012015-12-016Quantum Carnot Heat Engine Efficiency with Minimal Length
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85878
In this paper, the effects of the minimum lengths (ℏ√β) to the efficiency of a quantum heat engine are considered. A particle in infinite one-dimensional potential well is used as the "working substance". We obtain quantized energy of particle in the presence of minimal length, and then we do the isoenergetic cycle. We calculate heat exchanged between the system and reservoir, and then we get the efficiency of the engine. We observe that the minimum length increases efficiency of the engine at the small width of the potential well.A. PurwantoH. SukamtoB. A. Subagyo2015-12-012015-12-016On the Origin of Mass and Angular Momentum of Stellar Objects
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/JMPSRP/article/view/85882
The consequence of the 5D projection theory is extended beyond the Gell-Mann Standard Model for hadrons to cover astronomical objects and galaxies. The proof of Poincare conjecture by Perelman's differential geometrical techniques led us to the consequence that charged massless spinors reside in a 5D void of a galactic core, represented by either an open 5D core or a closed, time frozen, 3D × 1D space structure, embedded in massive structural stellar objects such as stars and planets. The open galactic core is obtained from Ricci Flow mapping. There exist in phase, in plane rotating massless spinors within these void cores, and are responsible for 1) the outward spiral motion of stars in the galaxy in the open core, and 2) self rotations of the massive stellar objects. It is noted that another set of eigen states pertaining to the massless charged spinor pairs rotating out of phase in 1D (out of the 5D manifold) also exist and will generate a relatively weak magnetic field out of the void core. For stars and planets, it forms the intrinsic dipole field. Due to the existence of a homogeneous 5D manifold from which we believe the universe evolves, the angular momentum arising from the rotation of the in-phase spinor pairs is proposed to be counter- balanced by the rotation of the matter in the surrounding Lorentz domain, so as to conserve net zero angular momentum. Explicit expression for this total angular momentum in terms of a number of convergent series is derived for the totally enclosed void case/core, forming in general the structure of a star or a planet. It is shown that the variables/parameters in the Lorentz spacetime domain for these stellar objects involve the object's mass M, the object's Radius R, period of rotation P, and the 5D void radius Ro, together with the Fermi energy Ef and temperature T of the massless charged spinors residing in the void. We discovered three laws governing the relationships between R<sub>o</sub>/R, T, E<sub>f</sub> and the angular momentum Iω of such astronomical object of interest, from which we established two distinct regions, which we define as the First and Second Laws for the evolution of the stellar object. The Fermi energy E<sub>f</sub> was found to be that of the electron mass, as it is the lightest massive elementary particle that could be created from pure energy in the core. In fact the mid-temperature of the transition region between the First and Second Law regions for this Ef value is 5.3 × 10<sup>9</sup> K, just about that of the Bethe fusion temperature. We then apply our theory to analyse observed data of magnetars, pulsars, pre-main-sequence stars, the NGC 6819 group, a number of low-to-mid mass main sequence stars, the M35 members, the NGC 2516 group, brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, magnetic white dwarfs, and members of the solar system. The ρ = (R<sub>o</sub>/R) versus T, and ρ versus P relations for each representative object are analysed, with reference to the general process of stellar evolution. Our analysis leads us to the following age sequence of stellar evolution: pulsars, pre-main-sequence stars, matured stars, brown dwarfs, white dwarfs/magnetic white dwarfs, and finally neutron stars. For every group, we found that there is an increasing average mass density during their evolution.Peter C. W. FungK. W. Wong2015-12-012015-12-016