Fossil Primates from the Siwalik Beds near Haritalyangar, Himachal Pradesh, India
Certain Primate fossils collected by the author from the Nagri beds at Haritalyangar are described in this paper. A left mandibular ramus with the associated dentition is assigned to a new species of Sivapithecus on the basis of certain specific characters. The great vertical depth of the jaw combined with a short symphysis is rather suggestive of a new species. The mandible has also been compared with other known Dryopithecinae from the Siwaliks of India as well as those from Africa, particularly with Proconsul major, a large ape from the Miocene of Kenya.
The other moiety described includes a fragment of a mandible with two excellently preserved molars. Apart from their large size, the two molars do not show any significant differences from Sivapithecus indicus. It was undoubtedly a large ape next only in size to Dryopithecus giganteus. An isolated, narrow lower molar with high crowns recognised in the collection is referred to the genus Sugrivapithecus. Another lower molar, slightly squarish and much worn, is assigned to Sivapithecus.
Sivapithecus is generally regarded as a highly evolved ape showing certain progressive characters, and Pilgrim attributed a high status for this genus. Other authorities considered the presence of a projecting canine and a seetorialised lower first premolar in addiltion to a simian shelf? as more apelike. Palaeontological evidence so far has not been conclusive and the whole problem now depends on collection of more material for further elucidation.
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