Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Alterations in Hepatic Antioxidant Systems and Lipid Peroxidation Products in a Freshwater Fish, Labeo rohita, Exposed to 4-Nonylphenol, an Endocrine Disruptor


Affiliations
1 Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical that could be present in the aquatic environment, but little is known about its oxidative stress effects. An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-NP may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Due to its hydrophobicity and long half-life, 4-NP can easily accumulate in living organisms, including humans, where it inflicts a series of toxic effects. In the present study, the oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters of Labeo rohita after exposure to various sub-lethal concentrations of 4-NP for 5, 10 and 15 days were examined. The level of glutathione content and the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase were significantly inhibited, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and the lipid peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were significantly elevated, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. The results demonstrate that 4-NP in aquatic systems can affect antioxidant responses.

Keywords

Antioxidants, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical, 4-Nonylphenol, Oxidative Stress.
Subscription Login to verify subscription
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Agergaard N, Jensen PT. Procedure for blood glutathione peroxidase determination in cattle and swine. Acta Vet Scand. 1982; 23:515-27.
  • Ahmad I, Hamid T, Fatima M, Chand HS, Jain SK, Athar M, Raisuddin S. Induction of hepatic antioxidants in freshwater catfish (Channa punctatus Bloch) is a biomarker of paper mill effluent exposure. Biochem Biophys Acta. 2000; 1523:37-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4165(00)00098-2
  • Amin KA, Hashem KS. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus): antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol. BMC Vet Res. 2012; 8:45. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-45 PMid:22537979 PMCid:PMC3482145
  • Benke GM, Cheevar KC. The comparative toxicity, acetylcholinesterase action and metabolism of methyl parathion and parathion in sunfish and mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1974; 28:97-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041008X(74)90135-5
  • Bernadac-Villegas LG, Solís-Casados DA, Corral-Avitia AY, Galar-Martínez M, Islas-Flores H, Dublán-García O, Gómez-Oliván LM. As2O3 induces oxidative stress in gill, liver, brain and blood of Cyprinus carpio. Electronic J Biol. 2016; 12:1.
  • Bradford MM. Rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976; 72:248-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
  • David M, Richard JS. Methods of enzymatic analysis. In: Bergmeyer J, Mariare GB (eds.) Verlag Chemie Wenhein Deer Field, Beach Floride. 1983; 26:358-59.
  • de Haan JB, Cristiano F, Iannello RC, Kola I. Cu/ Zn-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase during aging. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1995; 35:1281-97.
  • Desai TH. Toxicological studies of methanol on Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Int J of Fish and Aqua Stud. 2018; 6(5):20-22.
  • Di Giulio RT. Biochemical responses in aquatic animals: A review of determinants of oxidative stress. Environ Toxicol Chem. 1989; 8: 1103-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/ etc.5620081203
  • Dimitrova MST, Tsinova V, Velcheva V. Combined effects of zinc and lead on the hepatic superoxide dismutase-catalase system in carp (Cyprinus carpio). Comp Biochem Physiol Part C. 1994; 108:43-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/13678280(94)90087-6
  • Dittmar M, Knuth M, Beineke M, Epe B. Role of oxidative DNA damage and antioxidative enzymatic defence systems in human aging. Open Anthropol J. 2008; 1:38-45. https:// doi.org/10.2174/1874912700801010038
  • Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple F- tests. Biometrics.1995; 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
  • Emmanuel OO, Stanley CI, Christopher DN, Christian EM, Ogochukwu CO, Ibrahim BU. Toxicity of diazepam on lipid peroxidation, biochemical and oxidative stress indicators on liver and gill tissues of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Int J of Fish and Aqua Stud. 2017; 5(3):114-23.
  • European Commission (EC). European Union Risk Assessment Report 4-nonylphenol (branched) and nonylphenol. 2002.
  • Farombi EO, Ajimoko YR, Adelowo OA. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in freshwater African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Int J Environ Res Pub Health. 2008; 5:423-27. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph5050423 PMid:19151438 PMCid:PMC3700003
  • Filho DW, Giulivi C, Boveris A. Antioxidant defenses in marine fish. 1 Teleosts. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1993; 106: 409-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-8413(93)90154-D
  • Garaiova G, Muchova J, Sustrova M, Blazicek P, Sivonova M, Kvasnicka P, Pueschel S, Durackova Z. The relationship between antioxidant systems and some markers of oxidative stress in persons with Down syndrome. Biologica Bratislava. 2004; 59(6): 787-94.
  • Geret F, Serafim A, Barreira L, Bebianno MJ. Effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the gills of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. Biomarkers. 2002; 7(3): 242-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/13547500210125040 PMid:12141067
  • Gul S, Belge-Kurutas E, Yildiz E, Sahan A, Doran F. Pollution correlated modifications of liver antioxidant systems and histopathology of fish (Cyprinidae) living in Seyhan Dam Lake, Turkey. Environ Int. 2004; 30:605-09. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00059-X
  • Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione-Stransferases: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974; 249:7130-39.
  • Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (Eds). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999. p. 1-25.
  • Hamilton F. An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches. Edinburgh & London, 1822. p. 1-405. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.59540
  • Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectroscopic assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1984; 21:130-32.
  • Kwan HP. Alteration of hepatic antioxidant systems by 4-Nonylphenol, a metabolite of alkylphenol polyethoxylated detergents, in Far Eastern catfish, Silurus asotus. Environ Health Toxicol. 2015; 30:573-701. https://doi.org/10.5620/ eht.e2015006 PMid:26602557 PMCid:PMC4548496
  • Lawrence RA, Burck RA. Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium-deficient rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976; 71:952-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006291X(76)90747-6
  • Maehly AC, Chance B. The assay of catalase and peroxide. In: Glick D (ed.) Methods of Biochemical Analysis I.Interscience: New York. 1954; 1:357. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470110171.ch14 PMid:13193536
  • Maiti S, Chatterjee AK. Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency. Arch Toxicol. 2001; 75(9):531-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002040100240 PMid:11760813
  • Newbold R. Cellular and molecular effects of developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol: Implications for other environmental estrogens. Environ. Health Perspect. 1995; 103:83-7. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.95103s783 PMid:8593881 PMCid:PMC1518878
  • Nichans WG, Sannelson D. Formation of malondialdehyde from phospholipids arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur J Biochem. 1968; 6:126-130. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1968.tb00428.x PMid:4387188
  • Nwani CD, Lakra WS, Naqpure NS, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK. Toxicity of the herbicide atrazine: effects on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the freshwater fish, Channa punctatus. Int J of Environ Res and Pub Health. 2010; 7:3298-312. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph7083298 PMid:20948961 PMCid:PMC2954582
  • Oliveira M. Organ specific antioxidant responses in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) following a short-term exposure to phenanthrene. Sci Total Environ. 2008; 396:70-8. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.012 PMid:18358514
  • Oluwatosin AA, Abiola MA. Effect of environmental pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Asejire River in Oyo state, Nigeria. J Environ Occup Sci. 2016; 5(4):71-76. https://doi.org/10.5455/jeos.20161122030636
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Guidance Document on standardised test guidelines for evaluating chemicals for endocrine disruption. 2012; 1-524.
  • Padmini E, Vijaya GB, Usha RM. Liver oxidative stress of the grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, presents seasonal variations in Ennore estuary. Braz J Med Bio Res. 2008; 41(11):95155. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2008005000038 PMid:18853043
  • Palermo FA, Mosconi G, Angeletti M, Polzonetti-Magni AM. Assessment of water pollution in the Tronto River (Italy) by applying useful biomarkers in the fish model Carassius auratus. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008; 55(2):295-304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-007-9113-2 PMid:18214578
  • Pannunzio TM, Storey KB. Antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation during anoxia stress and aerobic recovery in the marine gastropod Littorina littorea. J Exp Mar Bio and Ecol. 1998; 221: 277-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S00220981(97)00132-9
  • Perez-Lopez M, Novoa-Valinas MC, Nlelgar-Riol MJ. Glutathione-S-transferasecytosolic isoforms as biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyl experimental contamination in rainbow trout. Toxicol Lett. 2002; 136:97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00284-9
  • Raja P, Puvaneswari S. Heavy metal lead nitrate induced toxic effects on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities in selected tissues of the fish Labeo rohita fingerlings. Int J of Zool Stud. 2017; 2:58-62
  • Recknagel RO, Goshal AK. Quantitative estimation of peroxidative degeneration of rat liver microsomal and mitochondrial lipids after carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Exp Mol Pathol. 1966; 5:413-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4800(66)90023-2
  • Sanchez W, Pallulel O, Meunier L, Coquery M, Porcher JM, Ait-Aissa S. Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback: relationship with hepatic metal levels. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005; 19:177-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2004.07.003 PMid:21783474
  • Sedeno-Diaz JE, Lopez-Lopez E. Freshwater fish as sentinel organisms: from the molecular to the population level, a review. In Turker H (ed.). New Advances and Contributions to Fish Biology. 2013; 4:151-73
  • Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. IBM Corp Armonk NY. 2013.
  • Tanu A, Awasthi A, Rana SVS. Fish chromatophores as biomarkers of arsenic exposure. Environ Biol Fishes. 2004; 71:7-11. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EBFI.0000043145.58953.86
  • Teles M, Pacheco M, Santos MA. Sparus aurata L. Liver EROD and GST activities, plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose and erythrocytic nuclear anomalies following short-term exposure either to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) or E2 combined with 4-nonylphenol. Sci Total Environ. 2005; 336(13):57-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.05.004 PMid:15589249
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA). Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria - Nonylphenol. 2005.
  • Vieira CED, Almeira MS, Galindo BA, Pereira L, Martinez CBR. Integrated biomarker response index using a neotropical fish to assess the water quality in agricultural areas. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2014; 12: 153-64. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252014000100017
  • Xueji L, Liting Z, Yiping N, Aiqing W, Mingjiang H, Yao L, Chengjiao H, Jianmei W, Bin C, Lijun F, Jian T, Xing T, Shasha T, Hailin T. Nonylphenol induces pancreatic damage in rats through mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2017; 6(3):353-60. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TX00450D PMid:30090504 PMCid:PMC6062391
  • Yilmaz HR, Turkoz Y, Yukse, E, Orun I. An investigation of antioxidant enzymes activities in the liver of Cyprinus carpio taken from different stations in the Karakaya Dam Lake. Int J Sci Tech. 2006; 1:1-6.
  • Zhang J, Shen H, Wang X, Wu J, Xue Y. Effects of chronic exposure of 2,4- dichlorophenol on the antioxidant system in the liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus. Chemosphere. 2004; 55(2):167-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.048 PMid:14761689

Abstract Views: 6

PDF Views: 1




  • Alterations in Hepatic Antioxidant Systems and Lipid Peroxidation Products in a Freshwater Fish, Labeo rohita, Exposed to 4-Nonylphenol, an Endocrine Disruptor

Abstract Views: 6  |  PDF Views: 1

Authors

S. Reshmi
Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala, India
V. S. Remya
Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala, India
V. R. Anjali
Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala, India
S. Shehna Mahim
Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala, India
C. Aruna Devi
Department of Zoology, University College, Thiruvananthapuram – 695034, Kerala, India

Abstract


4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical that could be present in the aquatic environment, but little is known about its oxidative stress effects. An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-NP may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Due to its hydrophobicity and long half-life, 4-NP can easily accumulate in living organisms, including humans, where it inflicts a series of toxic effects. In the present study, the oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters of Labeo rohita after exposure to various sub-lethal concentrations of 4-NP for 5, 10 and 15 days were examined. The level of glutathione content and the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase were significantly inhibited, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and the lipid peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were significantly elevated, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. The results demonstrate that 4-NP in aquatic systems can affect antioxidant responses.

Keywords


Antioxidants, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical, 4-Nonylphenol, Oxidative Stress.

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18311/jer%2F2019%2F26219