Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

A Review on Different Cladding Techniques Employed to Resist Corrosion


Affiliations
1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani- 741235, India
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani- 741235,West Bengal, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


Cladding on a surface may serve two fold functions; one is to improve surface dependent properties like resistance to wear under abrasion, erosion and corrosion, and the other is to enhance the bulk dependent properties like hardness, strength, etc. that is known as hardfacing. Clad components are expected to have capabilities of serving its specific function in a hostile environment for a sufficiently long time economically. For this, there is increasing demand of clad components in various industries like chemical, naval, mining, agriculture, power generation, etc. day by day. On the other hand, tool manufacturers use cladding techniques more and more in producing tools like rollers, dies, jaws, etc. which should possess high hardness and large compressive strength. Cladding through welding is one popular and versatile method. In this paper, various methods, especially, different welding techniques, used for depositing a layer to cover a surface, and in particular, cladding, are discussed mentioning their applications. Various characteristics of clad components are reviewed with reference to parametric optimization, microstructure and corrosion resistance properties.

Keywords

Cladding, Welding, Microstructure, Corrosion Resistance.
User
Subscription Login to verify subscription
Notifications
Font Size

  • Bhanu Kiran, V.T., Krishna, M., Praveen, M. and Pattar, N., Numerical Simulation of Multilayer Hardfacing on Low Carbon Steel, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.3, No.1, pp.53-63, 2011.
  • Groover, M.P., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing Materials, Processes and Systems, Wiley Publication Ltd., New Delhi, pp.660-684, 2012.
  • de Lacalle, L.N.L., Lamikiz, A., de Larrinoa, J.F. and Azkona, I., Advanced Cutting Tools, Chapter 2, http://www.springer.com/cda/content/.../cda.../9781849964494-c1.pdf, accessed on February 02 2014.
  • Dennis, J.K. and Such, T.E., Nickel and Chromium Plating, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. and ASM International, Cambridge, England, 1993.
  • ASM Handbook, Corrosion, Environments and Industries, Vol.13C, ASM International, p.76, 2006.
  • Metal Coating Processes, Manufacturing Process II, Unit 4, http://www.ignou.ac.in/upload/ Unit-4.pdf, accessed on February 02 2014.
  • Rathod, D., Choudhary, H. and Pandey, S., Microstructure and Weldability Evaluation of Dissimailar Metal Joint Using Paste Technique for Buttering Layers, Proceedings of the National Conference on Trends and Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Faridabad, India, pp.584-589, 2012.
  • Nadkarni, S.V., Modern Arc Welding Technology, Oxford & IHB Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp.615-616, 1988.
  • Saha, M.K., Mondal, A., Hazra, R. and Das, S., An Overview on Cladding through Gas Metal Arc Welding, Proceedings of the National Welding Seminar, Jamshedpur, India, 2015.
  • Schneider, M., Laser Cladding with Powder, Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, 1998.
  • Khanna, O.P., A Textbook of Welding Technology, Dhanpat Rai and Sons Publications, New Delhi, 1994.
  • Gualco, A., Svoboda, H.G., Surian, E.S. and de Vedia, L.A., Effect of Welding Procedure on Wear Behaviour of a Modified Martensitic Tool Steel Hardfacing Deposit, Materials & Design, Vol.31, No.9, pp.4165–4173, 2010.
  • Dupont, J.N. and Kusko, C.S., Martensite Formation in Austenitic/Ferritic Dissimilar Alloy Welds, Welding Journal, Vol.1, pp.51-54, 2007.
  • Bhanu Kiran, V.T., Krishna, M., Natraj, J.R. and Kumar, S., Development and Characterization of a Electrode Deposition Procedure for Crack-Free Hardfacing of Low Carbon Steel, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.4, No.1, pp.95-106, 2012.
  • Krishnaprasad, K. and Prakash, R.V., Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Dissimilar Metal Weldment of Stainless Steel and Carbon Steel, International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol.3, No.8, 1016-1022, 2009.
  • Pawlowski, L., Thick Laser Coatings: A Review, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol.8, No.2, pp.279-295, 1999.
  • Vilar, R., Laser Alloying and Laser Cladding, Material Science Forum, Vol.301, pp.229-252, 1999.
  • Lee, J.W., Nishio, K., Katoh, M., Yamaguchi, T. and Mishima, K., The Performance of Wear Resistance Cladding Layer on a Mild Steel Plate by Electric Resistance Welding, Welding in the World, Vol.49, No.9/10, pp.94-101, 2005.
  • Pandey, S., Development of Advanced Gas Metal Arc Welding Process, Proceedings of the Workshop on Welding Technologies, Chandigarh, India, 1999.
  • Chen, H., Chen, P.N., Hua, P.H., Chen, M.C., Chang, Y.Y. and Wu, W., Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Properties of Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Alloy Cladding Manufactured by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Journal of Metals and Materials International, Vol.19, No.1, pp.93-98, 2005.
  • Palani, P.K. and Murugan, N., Development of Mathematical Models for Prediction of Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding by Flux Cored Arc Welding, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.30, pp.669-676, 2006.
  • Mondal, S., Tudu, B., Bandyopadhyay, A. and Pal, P.K., Process Optimization for Laser Cladding Operation of Alloy Steel Using Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network, International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, Vol.2, No.1, pp.18-24, 2012.
  • Ramazan, K. and Mustafa, A., An Investigation on the Explosive Cladding of 316L Stainless Steel-DIN-P355 GH Steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.152, pp.91–96, 2004.
  • Habib, M.A., Ruan, L., Kimura, R., Manikandan, P. and Hokamoto, K., Cladding of Titanium and Magnasium Alloy by Explosive Welding Using Underwater Shockwave Technique and Effect on Interface, Materials Science Forum, Vol.767, pp.160-165, 2014.
  • Mateša, B., Samardžic, I. and Dunder, M., Effect of Cladding Procedures on Mechanical Properties of Heat Treated Dissimilar Joint, Metallurgy, Vol.51, No.4, pp.441-444, 2012.
  • Venkateswara, N.R., Madhusudan Rao, G. and Nagarjuna, D.D., Weld Overlay Cladding of High Strength Low Alloy Steel with Austenitic Stainless Steel– Structure and Properties, Materials & Design, Vol.32, No.4, pp.2496-2506, 2011.
  • Berridge, D.R., Corrosion-Resistant Alloy Cladding of Subsea Components, Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 2011.
  • Smith, L., Engineering with Clad Steel, Nickel Institute Technical Series, http:// w w w . n i c k e l i n s t i t u t e . o r g / ~ /Me d i a / F i l e s / T e c h n i c a l L i t e r a t u r e / 10064_EngineeringWithCladSteel2ndEd.pdf, accessed on November 16 2015.
  • Dupas, P. and Moinereau, D., Evaluation of Cladding Residual Stresses in Clad Blocks by Measurements and Numerical Simulations, Journal de Physique IV, Vol.6, pp.187-196, 1996.
  • Lucas, W., Arc Surfacing and Cladding Processes to Enhance Performance in Service and to Repair Worn Components, Welding and Metal Fabrication, Vol.62, No.2, pp.55-60, 1994.
  • Shah, K., Pinkerton, A.J., Salman, A. and Li, L., Effects of Melt Pool Variables and Process Parameters in Laser Direct Metal Deposition of Aerospace Alloys, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol.25, pp.1372–1380, 2010.
  • Lai, G. and Hulsizer, P., Corrosion Control by Modern Weld Overlay Technology, http:// metserve.co.za/pdf/Corrosion Control.pdf, accessed on November 17 2015.
  • Toit, M.D. and Niekerk, J.V., Improving the Life of Continuous Casting Rolls through Submerged Arc Welding with Nitrogen-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel, Welding in the World, Vol.54, No.11, pp.R342-R349, 2010.
  • Hashimoto, M., Tanaka, T., Inoue, T., Yamashita, M., Kurahashi, R. and Terakado, R., Development of Cold Rolling Mill Rolls of High Speed Steel Type by Using Continuous Pouring Process for Cladding, ISIJ International, Vol.42, pp.982–989, 2002.
  • Chen, J.H., Chen, P.N., Hua, P.H., Chen, M.C., Chang, Y.Y. and Wu, W., Deposition of Multicomponent Alloys on Low-Carbon Steel Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Cladding Process, Materials Transactions, Vol.50, pp.689-694, 2009.
  • Lee, J.W., Nishio, K., Katoh, M., Yamaguchi, T. and Mishima, K., The Performance of Wear Resistance Cladding Layer on a Mild Steel Plate by Electric Resistance Welding, Welding in the World, Vol.49, No.9/10, pp.94-101, 2005.
  • Das, D. and Das, S., Developments in Weld Cladding, Reason- A Technical Magazine, Vol. X, pp.13-16, 2011.
  • Mallaya, U.D. and Srinivas, H.S., Effect of Magnetic Steering of the Arc on Clad Quality in Submerged Arc Strip Cladding, Welding Journal, Vol.72, pp.289s-293s, 1993.
  • Parmar, R.S., Welding Engineering and Technology, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2010.
  • Jayachandrana, J.A.R. and Murugan, N., Investigations on the Influence of Surfacing Process Parameters over Bead Properties during Stainless Steel Cladding, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol.27, pp.69-77, 2012.
  • Oh, Y.K., Devletian, J.H. and Chen, S.J., Low-Dilution Electroslag Cladding for Shipbuilding, Welding Journal, Vol.79, pp.37-40, 1990.
  • Lee, S.H., Saito, Y., Park, K.T. and Shin, D.H., Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ultra Low Carbon it Steel Processed by Accumulative Roll Bonding Process, Materials Transactions, Vol.43, pp.2320-2325, 2009.
  • Dupas, P. and Moinereau, D., Evaluation of Cladding Residual Stresses in Clad Blocks by Measurements and Numerical Simulations, Journal de Physique IV, Vol.6, pp.187-196, 1996.
  • Mondal, A., Saha, M.K., Hazra R. and Das, S., Influence of Hat Input on Weld Bead Geometry Using Duplex Stainless Steel Wire Electrode on Low Alloy Steel Specimens, Cogent Engineering, Vol.3, pp.1-14, 2016.
  • Arnold, J. and Volz, V., Laser Power Technology for Cladding and Welding, Journal for Thermal Spray Technology, Vol.8, No.2, pp.243-248, 1999.
  • de Oliveira, U., Oceli´k, V. and de Hosson, J.Th.M., Analysis of Coaxial Laser Cladding Processing Conditions, Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol.197, No.2-3, pp.127-136, 2005.
  • Chen, Y.B., Feng, J.C., Li, L.Q., Li, Y. and Chang, S., Effects of Welding Positions on Droplet Transfer in CO2 Laser–MAG Hybrid Welding, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.68, No.5-8, pp.1351-1359, 2013.
  • Jorge, J.C.F., Souza, L.F.G. and Rebello, J.M.A., The Effect of Chromium on the Microstructure/ Toughness Relationship of C–Mn Weld Metal Deposits, Materials Characterization, Vol.47, No.3-4, pp.195-205, 2001.
  • Bourithis, L., Papaefthymiou, S. and Papadimitriou, G.D., Plasma Transferred Arc Boriding of Low a Carbon Steel: Microstructure and Wear Properties, Applied Surface Science, Vol.200, No.1-4, pp.203-218, 2002.
  • Eroglu, M., Boride Coatings on Steel Using Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrode: Microstructure and Hardness, Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol.203, No.16, pp.22292235, 2009.
  • Chen, J.M., He, J.L., Chen, K.C. and Chang, J.T., Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Titanium Nickel Overlay on Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel for Cavitation Erosion Resistance, Key Engineering Materials, Vol.479, pp.81-89, 2011.
  • Ishida, T., Formation of Stainless Steel Layer on Mild Steel by Welding Arc Cladding, Journal of Material Science, Vol.26, No.23, pp.6431-6435, 1991.
  • Missori, S., Murdolo, F. and Sili, A., Microstructural Characterization of Stainless-Cladded Carbon Steel, Metallurgical Science and Technology, Vol.19, No.2, pp.21-24, 2001.
  • Chakrabarti, B., Das, S., Das, H. and Pal, T.K., Effect of Process Parameters on Clad Quality of Duplex Stainless Steel Using GMAW Process, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, Vol.66, No.3, pp.221-230, 2013.
  • Kacar, R. and Acarer, M., An Investigation on the Explosive Cladding of 316L Stainless Steel- DIN-P355GH Steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.152, No.1, pp.9196, 2004.
  • Chen, J., Hsieh, C., Hua, P., Chang, C., Lin, C., Wu, P.T. and Wu, W., Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Properties of Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Alloy Cladding Manufactured by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Metals and Materials International, Vol.19, No.1, pp.93-98, 2013.
  • Zahrani, E.M. and Alfantazi, A.M., Hot Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Cladding in Smelting Off-Gas Environment, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol.44, No.10, pp.4671-4699, 2013.
  • Labanowski, J., Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Dissimilar Stainless Steels Welded Joints, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol.20, No.12, pp.255-258, 2007.
  • Khara, B., Mondal, N.D., Sarkar, A. and Das, S., On Cladding Performance of Austenite Stainless Steel over Low Alloy Steel Plates Using Metal Arc Welding, Indian Welding Journal, Vol.49, No.1, pp.75-81, 2016.
  • Verma, A.K., Biswas, B.C., Roy, P., De, S., Saren, S. and Das, S., On the Effectiveness of Duplex Stainless Steel Cladding Deposited by Gas Metal Arc Welding, e-Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Institute of Welding, Seoul, Korea, 2014.
  • Karlsson, L., Welding of Stainless Steels: Duplex and Superduplex Steels, Welding International, Vol.14, No.1, pp.5-11, 2000.
  • Kwok, C.T., Cheng, F.T. and Man, H.C., Synergistic Effect of Cavitation Erosion and Corrosion of Various Engineering Alloys in 3.5% NaCl Solution, Material Science Engineering: A, Vol.290, No.1-2, pp.145-154, 2000.

Abstract Views: 133

PDF Views: 2




  • A Review on Different Cladding Techniques Employed to Resist Corrosion

Abstract Views: 133  |  PDF Views: 2

Authors

Manas Kumar Saha
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani- 741235, India
Santanu Das
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kalyani Government Engineering College, Kalyani- 741235,West Bengal, India

Abstract


Cladding on a surface may serve two fold functions; one is to improve surface dependent properties like resistance to wear under abrasion, erosion and corrosion, and the other is to enhance the bulk dependent properties like hardness, strength, etc. that is known as hardfacing. Clad components are expected to have capabilities of serving its specific function in a hostile environment for a sufficiently long time economically. For this, there is increasing demand of clad components in various industries like chemical, naval, mining, agriculture, power generation, etc. day by day. On the other hand, tool manufacturers use cladding techniques more and more in producing tools like rollers, dies, jaws, etc. which should possess high hardness and large compressive strength. Cladding through welding is one popular and versatile method. In this paper, various methods, especially, different welding techniques, used for depositing a layer to cover a surface, and in particular, cladding, are discussed mentioning their applications. Various characteristics of clad components are reviewed with reference to parametric optimization, microstructure and corrosion resistance properties.

Keywords


Cladding, Welding, Microstructure, Corrosion Resistance.

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.22485/jaei%2F2016%2Fv86%2Fi1-2%2F119847