Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) - A Food Additive
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) also known as glutamic acid is a non essential amino acid used as a flavor enhancer worldwide. MSG is found naturally in tomatoes, grapes, cheese, mushrooms and other foods. It is one of the most widely used food additive in commercial foods. Monosodium glutamate is believed to be associated with different health problems viz., obesity, asthma, metabolic disorders, Chinese restaurant syndrome, neurotoxic effects and detrimental effects on the reproductive organs. Literature showed MSG was associated with adverse side-effects particularly in animals including induction of obesity, diabetes, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects. Literature showed that increased consumption of monosodium glutamate may be associated with harmful health effects. Further Intensive research is required to explore monosodium glutamate–related molecular and metabolic mechanisms.
- Bera, T.K., Kar, S.K., Yadav, P.K., Mukherjee, P., Yadav, S. and Joshi, B. Effects of sodium glutamate on human health: Asystematic review. World J. Pharma. Sci., 2017, 5, 139-144.
- Zia, M.S., Hanif, K.R. and Khalil, M. Effect of monosodium glutamate on the serum estrogen and progesterone levels in female rat and prevention of this effect with diltiazem. J. Ayub. Med. Coll. Abbollabad., 2014, 26, 18 -20.
- Xiong, J.S., Branigan, D. and Lim. Peciphering the MSG Controversy. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med., 2009, 2, 329-336.
- Singh, 2005. Fact or Fiction, The MSG Controversy. 2005 Retrieved from http://nrs.harvard.edu.
- Anonymous. History of Invention and use of MSG. n.d. 2016 Retrieved from http://www.truthinlabelling.org.
- Wijayasekara, K. and Wanaspal, J. Uses, effects and properties of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on food and nutrition. Int. J. Fd. Sci. Nutr., 2017, 2, 132-143.
- Win. C., ed. Principles of Biochemistry. Boston, MA: Brown Pub Co. 1995.
- Yamaguchi, Shizuko, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Japan; Ninomiya, Kumiko, Technical Committee, Umami Manufacturers Association of Japan. What is umami?. Fd. Rev. Int., 1998, 14, 123-138.
- Kazmi, Z., Fathma, I., Perveen, S. and Malik, S.S. Monosodium glutamate: review on clinical reports. Int. J. Fd. Proper., 2012, 1807-1815.
- Husarova, V. and Ostatnikova, D. Monosodium glutamate toxic effects and their implications for human intake: Areview. JMED Res., 2013, 1-13.
- He, K., Du, S., Xun, P., Sharma, S., Wang, H., Zhai, F. and Popkin, B. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), The Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2011, 93, 1328-1336.
- Hermanussen, M. and Tresguerres, J.A.F. Does high glutamate intake cause obesity?, J. Pediat. Endocrinol.Metabol., 2003, 16, 965-968.
- Collison, K.S., Makhoul, N.J., Inglis, A., Al-Johi, M., Zaidi, M.Z., Maqbool, Z., Saleh, S.M., Bakheet, R., Mondreal, R., Al-Rabiah, R., Shoukri, M., Milgram, N. W. and Al-Mohanna, F.A. Dietary trans-fat combined with monosodium glutamate induces dyslipidemia and impairs spatial memory. Physiol. Behavior., 2010, 99, 334-342.
- Das, R.S. and Ghosh, S.K. Long term effects of monosodium glutamate on spermatogenesis following neonatal exposure in albino mice- A histological study. Nepal Med. Coll. J., 2010, 12, 149-153.
- Kazmi, Z., Fatima, I., Perveen, S. and Malik, S.S. Monosodium glutamate: review on clinical reports. Int. J. Fd. Proper., 2017, 20, 1807-1815. Retrieved from https://www.fssai.gov.in/home/fss-legislation/fss-regulations.html.
- He, K., Zaho, L., Daviglus, M.L., Dyer, A.R., Horn, L.V., Garside, D., Zhu, L., Guo, D., Wu, Y., Zhou, B. and Stamler, J. Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in chinese adults: the INTERMAPstudy. Obesity, 2008, 16, 1875-1880.
- Walker, R. and Lupien, J.R. The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate. The J. Nutr., 2000, 130, 1049-1052.
- Iwase, M., Yamamoto, M., Lino, K., Ichikawa, K., Shinohara, N., Yoshinari, M. and Fujishima, M. Obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats: an animal model of multiple risk factors. Hyperten. Res., 1998, 21, 1-6.
- Yang, W.H., Drouin, M.A., Herbert, M., Mao, Y. and Karsh, J. The monosodium glutamate symptom complex: assessment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J. Aller. Clini. Immunol., 1997, 99, 757-762.
- Vautrin, M.D.A. Monosodium glutamate-induced asthma: study of the potential risk of 30 asthmatics and review of the literature. Allergie et Immunologie., 1987, 19, 29-35.
- Henry-Unaeze, H. N. Update on food safety of monosodium I-glutamate (MSG). Pathophysiol., 2017, 24, 243-249.
- Wijayasekara, K. and Wansapala J. Uses, effects and properties of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on food and nutrition. Int. J. Fd. Sci. Nut., 2017, 2, 132-143.
- Kasozi, K.I., Namubiru, S, Kiconco, O., Kinyi, H.W., Ssempijja, F., Ezeonwumelu J.O.C., Ninsiima, H.I. and Okpanachi, A.O. Low concentrations of monosodium glutamate (MSG) are safe in male Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Res. Notes, 2018, 11, 670.
- Fernstrom, J.D. monosodium glutamate in the diet does not raise brain glutamate concentrations or disrupt brain functions. Ann. Nutr. Metabol., 2018, 73, 43-52.
- Zanfirescu, A., Ungurianu, A., Tsatsakis, A.M., Nitulescu, G.M., Kouretas, D., eskoukis, A., Tsoukalas, D., Engin, A.B., Aschner, M. and Margina, D. Areview of the alleged health hazards of monosodium glutamate. Compreh. Rev. Fd. Sci. Fd. Safety, 2019, 18, 1111-1134.
Abstract Views: 138
PDF Views: 0