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A Review on Green Revolution, Nutritional Transition, Diabetes and Millet Movement in India


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1 Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, Telangana - 500 007, India
     

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The advent of the green revolution in the early 1960s in India, when high yielding varieties were introduced into the farm coupled with enhanced irrigation facilities and fertilizers resulted in massive agricultural output. The over emphasis on high yielding crops such as wheat, maize and rice not only improved the harvest index and per capita food availability, but also showed a nutritional transition among people. The indigenous whole grains such as amaranth, barley, sorghum and millets were commonly consumed by people prior to the green revolution. Among these, millet found a dramatic decline in cultivation. Various reasons can be attributed to this shift from millet to other crops. However today, the typical diet of an Indian is of high carbohydrate and low protein since the majority of consumers prefer rice and wheat in their diet. This transition in nutrition from complex carbohydrates of indigenous crops to high glycemic index foods such as wheat and rice is correlated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus. The incidence of diabetes in India is growing exponentially and to combat it, a demand for food containing complex carbohydrates with a higher level of dietary fiber is needed. This review deals with the idea of ‘The Millet Movement’ in India, a strategy through which the dietary management of diabetes can be handled in a better way considering the nutritive value of the millet.


Keywords

Rice, Diabetes, Green Revolution, Millets, Glycemic Index, Therapeutic Diet.
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  • A Review on Green Revolution, Nutritional Transition, Diabetes and Millet Movement in India

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Authors

Arun Pandiyan
Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, Telangana - 500 007, India
Mrunal Barbhai
Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, Telangana - 500 007, India
Srujana Medithi
Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, Telangana - 500 007, India

Abstract


The advent of the green revolution in the early 1960s in India, when high yielding varieties were introduced into the farm coupled with enhanced irrigation facilities and fertilizers resulted in massive agricultural output. The over emphasis on high yielding crops such as wheat, maize and rice not only improved the harvest index and per capita food availability, but also showed a nutritional transition among people. The indigenous whole grains such as amaranth, barley, sorghum and millets were commonly consumed by people prior to the green revolution. Among these, millet found a dramatic decline in cultivation. Various reasons can be attributed to this shift from millet to other crops. However today, the typical diet of an Indian is of high carbohydrate and low protein since the majority of consumers prefer rice and wheat in their diet. This transition in nutrition from complex carbohydrates of indigenous crops to high glycemic index foods such as wheat and rice is correlated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus. The incidence of diabetes in India is growing exponentially and to combat it, a demand for food containing complex carbohydrates with a higher level of dietary fiber is needed. This review deals with the idea of ‘The Millet Movement’ in India, a strategy through which the dietary management of diabetes can be handled in a better way considering the nutritive value of the millet.


Keywords


Rice, Diabetes, Green Revolution, Millets, Glycemic Index, Therapeutic Diet.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21048/ijnd.2019.56.4.23713