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Pectic Polysaccharides have Relatively Potent Immunomodulatory Activity Compared to their Hydrolysates from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Husk
In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of Pectic Polysaccharides (PPs) extracted sequentially using ammonium oxalate and ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (PP-AO and PP-EDTA) and their oligosaccharides (PO-AO and PO-EDTA) from chickpea husk, characterized in our previous study, was investigated using the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 at different concentrations. Results showed that treatment with 12.5-100 μg/mL of PP-AO, PP-EDTA, PO-AO and PO-EDTA stimulated macrophage proliferation, nitric oxide production and phagocytosis. The proliferation rate was observed to be increased as the production of nitric oxide increased at time intervals of 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-4 and IFN-γ cytokine expression profiles were measured by ELISA 24 h following the treatment. Pectic Polysaccharides (PPs) and Pectic Oligosaccharides (POs), demonstrated an elevation in cytokine levels as compared to control. Pectic polysaccharide extracts (PP-AO and PP-EDTA) are relatively potent immunomodulatory complex by inducing iNOS expression as compared to their respective hydrolysates (PO-AO and PO-EDTA) may be due to a high degree of polymerization or high amount of uronic acid as well as acetyl groups. The presence of higher content of complex xylogalacturonan with relatively more galactan side chains of PP-AO compared to EDTA isolated PPs (data not shown) made them exhibit as a potent immunomodulatory. These results suggest that pectic polysaccharides from chickpea husk can improve immunity by enhancing immune function and could be explored as a potential immunomodulatory agent in functional foods.
Chickpea husk, pectic polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, immunomodulation, macrophage, phagocytosis
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