Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Probiotics in Dental Caries Prevention
The prevalence of oral diseases is increasing and is becoming a major concern in the society. Treatment without prevention is simply unsustainable. One such preventable disease is dental caries. Several strategies for caries prevention have been developed over the years. Bacteriotherapy is one potential method. With better understanding on the importance of a well balanced oral microbial environment for maintaining good dental health, probiotics has gained great momentum in dentistry. The World Health Organization along with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations defined probiotics as “Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. Several probiotic strains have been identified for caries prevention through various experimental studies. However, identifying the right vehicle for administration of probiotics on everyday basis is the need of the hour. Toothpastes, mouthrinses, powders, tablets, lozenges, chewing gums are some probiotic vehicles that have been studied. This paper would throw light on the microbial strains, mechanism of action, forms and future for probiotics in caries prevention.
Bacteriotherapy, Caries Prevention, Dental Caries, Oral Microbial Environment, Probiotics, Strains, Vehicle.
- Selwitz, R.H., Ismail, A.I. and Pitts, N.B. Dental caries. Lancet, 2007, 369, 51–59.
- Kidd, E.A. and Fejerskov, O. What constitutes dental caries? Histopathology of carious enamel and dentin related to the action of cariogenic biofilms. J. Dent. Res., 2004, 83.
- Featherstone, J.D. The continuum of dental caries-evidence for a dynamic disease process. J. Dent. Res., 2004, 83, 39–42.
- Takahashi, N. and Nyvad, B. The role of bacteria in the caries process: Ecological perspectives. J. Dent. Res., 2011, 90, 294–303.
- Zander, H.A. and Bibby, B.G. Penicillin and caries activity. J. Dent. Res., 1947, 26, 365–368.
- Jordan, H.V. and De Paola, P.F. Effect of a topically applied 3 per cent vancomycin gel on Streptococcus mutans on different tooth surfaces. J. Dent. Res., 1974, 53, 115–120.
- Anderson, M.H. A review of the efficacy of chlorhexidine on dental caries and the caries infection. J. Calif. Dent. Assoc., 2003, 31, 211–214.
- Duckworth, R.M. The science behind caries prevention. Int. Dent. J., 1993, 43, 529–539.
- Walker, C. Effects of sanguinarine and Sanguinaria extract on the microbiota associated with the oral cavity. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 1990, 56, 13–30.
- Emilson, C.G. Potential efficacy of chlorhexidine against mutans streptococci and human dental caries. J. Dent. Res., 1994, 73, 682–691.
- Marshand, P.D. and Bradshaw, D.J. Microbiological effects of new agents in dentifrices for plaque control. Int. Dent. J., 1993, 43, 399–406.
- Pazgier, M., Hoover, D.M., Yang, D., et al. Human beta-defensins. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 2006, 63, 1294–1313.
- Edwardsson, S., Birkhed, D. and Mejare, B. Acid production from Lycasin, maltitol, sorbitol and xylitol by oral streptococci and lactobacilli. Acta. Odontol. Scand., 1977, 35, 257–263.
- Karulf, R.E., Coller, J.A., Bartolo, D.C., et al. Anorectal physiology testing. A survey of availability and use. Dis. Colon. Rectum., 1991, 34, 464–468.
- Reynolds, E.C. Anticariogenic complexes of amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptides: A review. Spec. Care Dentist. 1998, 18, 8–16.
- Allaker, R.P. and Douglas, C.W. Novel anti-microbial therapies for dental plaque-related diseases. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents., 2009, 33, 8–13.
- Teughels, W., Van essche, M., Sliepen, I. and Quirynen, M. Probiotics and oral healthcare. Periodontol., 2000, 2008, 111–147.
- Taipale, T., Pienihakkinen, K., Alanen, P., Jokela, J. and Soderling, E. Administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in early childhood: A post-trial effect on caries occurrence at four years of age. Caries. Res., 2013, 47, 364–372.
- Campus, G., Cocco, F., Carta, G., Cagetti, M.G., Simark-Mattson, C., Strohmenger, L. and Lingström, P. Effect of a daily dose of Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges in high caries risk school children. Clin. Oral. Investig., 2013.
- Juneja, A. and Kakade, A. Evaluating the effect of probiotic containing milk on salivary mutans streptococci levels. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent., 2012, 37, 9–14.
- Taipale, T., Pienihäkkinen, K., Salminen, S., Jokela, J. and Soderling, E. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 administration in early childhood: A randomized clinical trial of effects on oral colonization by mutans streptococci and the probiotic. Caries Res., 2012, 46, 69–77.
- Marttinen, A., Haukioja, A., Karjalainen, S., Nylund, L., Satokari, R., Öhman, C., Holgerson, P., Twetman, S. and Söderling, E. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque. Clin. Oral Investig., 2012, 16, 797–803.
- Keller, M.K. and Twetman, S. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria. BMC Oral Health. 2012, 12, 44.
- Keller, M.K., Hasslof, P., Dahlen, G., Stecksen-Blicks, C. and Twetman, S. Probiotic supplements (Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) do not affect regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine: A randomized controlled multicenter trial. Caries Res., 2012, 46, 140–146.
- Singh, R.P., Damle, S.G. and Chawla, A. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli modulations in young children on consumption of probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5. Acta. Odontol. Scand., 2011, 69, 389–394.
- Aminabadi, N.A., Erfanparast, L., Ebrahimi, A. and Oskouei, S.G. Effect of chlorhexidine pretreatment on the stability of salivary lactobacilli probiotic in six- to twelve-year-old children: A randomized controlled trial. Caries Res., 2011, 45, 148–154.
- Jindal, G., Pandey, R.K., Agarwal, J. and Singh, M. A comparative evaluation of probiotics on salivary mutans streptococci counts in Indian children. Eur. Arch. Paediat. Dent., 2011, 12, 211–215.
- Petersson, L.G., Magnusson, K., Hakestam, U., Baigi, A. and Twetman, S. Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults. Acta. Odontol. Scand., 2011, 69, 321–327.
- Chuang, L.C., Huang, C.S., Ou-Yang, L.W. and Lin, S.Y. Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei effect on cariogenic bacterial flora. Clin. Oral Investig. 2011, 15, 471–476.
- Lexner, M.O., Blomqvist, S., Dahlén, G. and Twetman, S. Microbiological profiles in saliva and supragingival plaque from caries-active adolescents before and after a shortterm daily intake of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria-A pilot study. Oral Health Prev. Dent., 2010, 8, 383–388.
- Cildir, S.K., Germec, D., Sandalli, N., Ozdemir, F.I., Arun, T., Twetman, S. and Caglar, E. Reduction of salivary mutans streptococci in orthodontic patients during daily consumption of yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria. Eur. J. Orthod., 2009, 31, 407–411.
- Stecksen-Blicks, C., Sjostrom, I. and Twetman, S. Effect of long-term consumption of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli and fluoride on dental caries and general health in preschool children: A cluster-randomized study. Caries Res., 2009, 43, 374–381.
- Caglar, E., Kuscu, O.O., Selvi Kuvvetli, S., Kavaloglu Cildir, S., Sandalli, N. and Twetman, S. Short-term effect of ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Acta. Odontol. Scan., 2008, 66, 154–158.
- Caglar, E., Kuscu, O.O., Cildir, S.K., Kuvvetli, S.S. and Sandalli, N. A probiotic lozenge administered medical device and its effect on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Int. J. Paediat. Dent., 2008, 18, 35–39.
- Caglar, E., Kavaloglu, S.C., Kuscu, O.O., Sandalli, N., Holgerson, P.L. and Twetman, S. Effect of chewing gums containing xylitol or probiotic bacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Clin. Oral Investig., 2007, 11, 425–429.
- Caglar, E., Cildir, S.K., Ergeneli, S., Sandalli, N. and Twetman, S. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws or tablets. Acta. Odontol. Scand., 2006, 64, 314–318.
- Caglar, E., Sandalli, N., Twetman, S., Kavaloglu, S., Ergeneli, S. and Selvi, S. Effect of yogurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173 010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. Acta Odontol. Scand., 2005, 63, 317–320.
- Montalto, M., Vastola, M., Marigo, L., Covino, M., Graziosetto, R., Curigliano, V., Santoro, L., Cuoco, L., Manna, R. and Gasbarrini, G. Probiotic treatment increases salivary counts of lactobacilli: A double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Digestion. 2004, 69, 53–56.
- Ahola, A.J., Yli-Knuuttila, H., Suomalainen, T., Poussa, T., Ahlström, A., Meurman, J.H. and Korpela, R. Short-term consumption of probiotic-containing cheese and its effect on dental caries risk factors. Arch. Oral Biol., 2002, 47, 799–804.
- Nase, L., Hatakka, K., Savilahti, E., Saxelin, M., Ponka, A., Poussa, T., Korpela, R. and Meurman, J.H. Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res., 2001, 35, 412–420.
- Teughels, W., Van Essche, M., Sliepen, I. and Quirynen, M. Probiotics and oral healthcare. Periodontol., 2000, 48, 111-147.
- Svante Twetman. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy? Braz. Oral Res., 2012, 26.
- Yli-Knuuttila, H., Snäll, J., Kari, K. and Meurman, J.H. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 2006, 21, 129-131.
- Ravn, I., Dige, I., Meyer, R.L. and Nyvad, B. Colonization of the oral cavity by probiotic bacteria. Caries Res., 2012, 46, 107-112.
- Reid, G., Younes, J.A., Van der Mei, H.C., Gloor, G.B., Knight, R. and Busscher. H.J. Microbiota restoration: natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2011, 9, 27-38.
- Haukioja, A., Loimaranta, V. and Tenovuo, J. Probiotic bacteria affect the composition of salivary pellicle and streptococcal adhesion in vitro. Oral. Microbiol. Immunol., 2008, 23, 336–343.
- Reham Wasfi, Ola, A., Abd El-Rahman, Mai M. Zafer Hossam M. Ashour, Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibits growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans. J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2018, 20, 1-12.
- Glenn V. Walker, Nicholas C.K. Heng, Alan Carne, John R. Tagg1 and Philip A. Wescombe Salivaricin E and abundant dextranase activity may contribute to the anti-cariogenic potential of the probiotic candidate Streptococcus salivarius. JH. Microbiol., 2016, 162, 476–486.
- Koll-Klais, P., Mandar, R., Leibur, E., Marcotte, H., Hammarström, L. and Mikelsaar, M. Oral lactobacilli in chronic periodontitis and periodontal health: species composition and antimicrobial activity. Oral. Microbiol. Immunol., 2005, 20, 354-361.
- Tetsuyo Nishihara, Nao Suzuki, Masahiro Yoneda and Takao Hirofuji. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: A randomized open-label clinical trial. BMC Oral Health., 2014, 14, 110.
- Wirginia Krzy sciak, Dorota Ko scielniak, Monika Papiez, Palina Vyhouskaya, et al. Effect of a Lactobacillus salivarius Probiotic on a Double-Species Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans caries Biofilm. Nutr., 2017, 9, 1242.
- Jeremy P. Burton, Bernadette K. Drummond, Chris N. Chilcott, John R. Tagg, W. Murray Thomson et al. Influence of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 on indices of dental health in children: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Med. Microbiol., 2013, 62, 875-884.
- Burton, J.P., Cowley, S., Simon, R.R., McKinney, J. et al. Evaluation of safety and human tolerance of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12: A randomized, placebocontrolled, double-blind study. Fd. Chem. Toxico, 1, 2011, 49, 2356-2364.
- Li-Chuan Chuan, Chiung-Shing Huang, Li-Wei Ou-Yang, Shiao-Yu Lin Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei effect on cariogenic bacterial flora. Clin. Oral. Investig., 2011, 15, 471-476.
- Domagoj Glavina, Kristina Gorseta, Ilija Skrinjari, Dubravka Negovetic Vranic et al. Effect of LGG Yoghurt on Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Spp. Salivary Counts in Children. Coll. Antropol., 2012, 36, 129-132.
- Esber Caglar, Nuket Sandalli, Svante Twetman, Sule Kavaloglu et al. Effect of yogurt with Bifidobacterium DN-173 010 on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. Acata.odontd.scand., 2005, 63, 317-320.
- Esber Caglar, Sule Kavaloglu, Semra Ergeneli, Nuket Sandalli et al. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws or tablets. Acta.odontd.scand., 2006, 64, 314-318.
- Young-Jae Kim, Sung-Hoon Lee. Inhibitory Effect of Lactococcus lactis HY 449 on Cariogenic Biofilm. 2016.
- Sung Hoon Lee, Young Jae Kim. A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries. 2014, 196, 8.
- Meurman, J.H. and Stamatova, I. Probiotics: Contributions to oral health. Oral. Dis. 2007, 13, 443.
- Meurman, J.H. Probiotics: Do they have a role in oral medicine and dentistry? Eur. J. Oral. Sci., 2005, 113, 188-196.
- Yli-Knuuttila, H., Snall, J., Kari, K. and Meurman, J.H. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus G in the oral cavity. Oral. Microbiol. Immunol., 2006, 21, 129-131.
- Twetman, S. and Stecksen-Blicks, C. Probiotics and oral health effects in children. Int. J. Paediat. Dent., 2008, 18, 3-10.
- Stensson, M., Koch, G., Coric, S., Abrahamsson, T.R., Jenmalm, M.C., Birkhed, D., et al. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. Caries Res., 2014, 48, 111–117.
- Maria Grazia Cagetti, Stefano Mastroberardino, Egle Milia, Fabio Cocco, Peter Lingström and Guglielmo Campus. The use of probiotic strains in caries prevention: A systematic review. Nutr., 2013, 5, 2530-2550.
Abstract Views: 32
PDF Views: 1