Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Role of Physical Activity on Calorie-Induced Changes in Cognition and Depression of Young and Aged Humans


Affiliations
1 Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700 019, India
2 Department of Physiology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia-741 235, West Bengal, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


Normal aging is known to encounter stress. Association of aging with declining cognition and elevated depression is a phenomenon which can be modulated by lifestyle. Caloric restriction down regulates normal aging by lowering stress and has been found to protect aging processes. The present study assessed the effect of Calorie Restriction (CR) and Physical Activity (PA) on aging-induced changes on cognition and depression. Healthy male aged (20-35 years; N=312) and (55-70 years; N=392) were considered from low income and middle education population. Data related to socioeconomic status, health status, cognitive performance by mini-cog and 6CIT, depression by CES-D Scale, PA Level (PAL) and calorie intake were collected through questionnaires. AP (at-par) diet (amount consumed equivalent to the amount of energy required for 24 h) reduced cognitive function of the aged group compared to the young of the same calorie group without affecting their depression under similar conditions. CR diet improved cognition with a lowering of depression in the young subjects compared to aged of the same group. High PAL in comparison to low PAL irrespective of age and calorie intake positively modulated cognition and depression of the subjects. These results suggest that (a) young population with CR diet and aged population with AP diet are benefitted in both cognitive ability and depression (b) high PAL unlike low PAL improved both cognition and depression of both young and aged population irrespective of their calorie intake.

Keywords

Aging, Calorie Restriction, Cognitive Function, Depression, Physical Activity.
User
Notifications

  • Hayflick, L. The future of aging. Nature, 2000, 408, 267–269.
  • Laurin, D., Verreault, R., Lindsay, J., MacPherson, K. and Rockwood, K. Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons. Arch. Neurol., 2001, 58, 498–504.
  • Jorm, A.F. and Korten, A.E. Assessment of cognitive decline in the elderly by informant interview. The Br. J. Psychiat., 1988, 152, 209–213.
  • Hedden, T. and Gabrieli, J.D.E. Insights into the ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2004, 5, 87–96.
  • Park, D.C. and Reuter-Lorenz, P. The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaf folding. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 2009, 60, 173–196.
  • Paradise, M., Cooper, C. and Livingston, G. Systematic review of the effect of education on survival in Alzheimer’s disease. Int. Psychogeriatr., 2009, 21, 25–32.
  • Meyer, T.D., Gudgeon, E., Thomas, A.J. and Collerton, D. Cognitive style and depressive symptoms in elderly people - Extending the empirical evidence for the cognitive Vulnerabilitystress hypothesis. Behav. Res. Therap., 2010, 48, 1053–1057.
  • Stewart, R. and Hirani, V. Dental health and cognitive impairment in an English national survey population. J. Am. Geriatr, Soc., 2007, 55, 1410–1414.
  • Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S. and Winblad, B. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. The Lancet Neurol., 2004, 3, 343–353.
  • Crowe, M., Andel, R., Pedersen, N.L., Fratiglioni, L. and Gatz, M. Personality and risk of cognitive impairment 25 years later. Psychol. Aging, 2006, 21, 573–580.
  • Byrne, G.J. and Pachana, N.A. Anxiety and depression in the elderly: Do we know any more? Curr. Opin. Psychiat., 2010, 23, 504–509.
  • Potter, G.G. and Steffens, D.C. Contribution of depression to cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults. Neurolog., 2007, 13, 105–117.
  • Strawbridge, W.J., Deleger, S., Roberts, R.E. and Kaplan, G.A. Physical activity Reduces the risk of subsequent depression for older adults. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2002, 156, 328–340.
  • Paterniti, S., Verdier-Taillefer, M.H., Dufouil, C. and Alperovitch, A. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people- Longitudinal study. Br. J. Psychiat., 2002, 181, 406–410.
  • Carter, C.S., Leeuwenburgh, C., Daniels, M. and Foster, T.C. Influence of calorie restriction on measures of age-related cognitive decline: role of increased physical activity. J. Gerontol. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci., 2009, 64, 850–859.
  • Witte, A.V., Fobker, M., Gellnar, R., Knecht, S. and Floel, A. Calorie restriction improves memory in elderly humans. The Nat. Aca. Sci., 2009, 106, 1255–1260.
  • Aartsen, M.J., Smiths, C.H.M., Van Tilburg, T., Knopscheer, K.C.P.M. and Deeg, D.J.H. Activity in older adults: cause or consequence of cognitive functioning – A longitudinal study on everyday activities and cognitive performance in older adults. J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci., 2002, 57, 153–162.
  • Sateia, M.J. Neuropsychological impairment and quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea. Clin. Chest. Med., 2003, 24, 249–259.
  • Beebe, D.W. and Gozal, D. Obstructive sleep apnea and the prefrontal cortex: towards a comprehensive model linking nocturnal upper airway obstruction to daytime cognitive and behavioral deficits. J. Sleep Res., 2002, 11, 1–16.
  • Rosendorff, C., Beeri, M.S. and Silverman, J.M. Cardiovascular risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Am. J. Geriatr. Cardiol., 2007, 16, 143–149.
  • Elwood, P.C., Gallacher, J.E., Hopkinson, C.A., Pickering, J., Rabbitt, P., Stollery, B., et.al. Smoking, drinking, and other life style factors and cognitive function in men in the Caerphilly cohort. J. Epidemiol. Comm. Health., 1999, 53, 9–14.
  • Nakazawa, K., Quirk, M.C., Chitwood, R.A., Watanabe, M., Yeckel, M.F., Sun, L.D., et.al. Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall. Sci., 2002, 297, 211–218.
  • Greenwood, C.E. and Winocur, G. Decline in cognitive function with aging: impact of diet. Mature Med., 1999, 2, 205–209.
  • Daviglus, M.L., Plassman, B.L., Pirzada, A., Bell, C.C., Bowen, P.E., Burke, J.R., et al. Risk factors and preventive interventions for Alzheimer disease: state of the science. Arch. Neurol., 2011.
  • Morgan, T.E., Xie, Z., Goldsmith, S., Yoshida, T., Lanzrein, A.S., Stone, D., et al. The mosaic of brain glial hyperactivity during normal ageing and its attenuation by food restriction. Neurosci., 1999, 89, 687–699.
  • Patel, N.V., Gordon, M.N., Connor, K.E., Good, R.A., Engelman, R.W., Mason, J., et al. Caloric restriction attenuates Abeta-deposition in Alzheimer transgenic models. Neurobiol. Aging, 2005, 26, 995–1000.
  • Schroeder, J.E., Richardson, J.C. and Virley, D.J. Dietary manipulation and caloric restriction in the development of mouse models relevant to neurological diseases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 2010, 1802, 840–846.
  • Luchsinger, J.A., Tang, M.X., Shea, S. and Mayeux, R. Caloric intake and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch. Neurol., 2002, 59, 1258–1263.
  • Stranahan, A. and Mattson, M. Impact of energy intake and expenditure on neuronal plasticity. Neuromol. Med., 2008, 10, 209–218.
  • Parrott, M.D. and Greenwood, C.E. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: From high-fat diets to healthful eating. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 2007, 1114, 389–397.
  • Gomez-Pinilla, F. The influences of diet and exercise on mental health through hormesis. Ageing Res. Rev., 2008, 7, 49–62.
  • Willcox, B.J., Willcox, D.C., Todoriki, H., Fujiyoshi, A., Yano, K., He, Q., et.al. Caloric restriction, the traditional Okinawan diet and healthy aging: The diet of the world’s longest-lived people and its potential impact on morbidity and life span. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 2007, 1114, 434–455.
  • Christensen, H., Korten, A., Jorm, A.F., Henderson, A.S., Scott, R. and Mackinnon, A.J. Activity levels and cognitive functioning in an elderly community sample. Age and Ageing, 1996, 25, 72–80.
  • Sprott, R.L. Diet and calorie restriction. Exp. Gerontol., 1997, 32, 205–214.
  • Yu, B.P., Masoro, E.J. and McMahan, C.A. Nutritional influences on aging of Fischer 344 rats: I. Physical, metabolic and longevity characteristics. J. Gerontol., 1985, 40, 657–670.
  • Holloszy, J.O. and Schechtman, K.B. Interaction between exercise and food restriction: effects on longevity of male rats. J. Appl. Physiol., 1991, 70, 1529–1535.
  • McCarter, R.J., Shimokawa, I., Ikeno, Y., Hiqami, Y., Hubbard, G.B., Yu, B.P., et.al. Physical activity as a factor in the action of dietary restriction on aging: effects in Fischer 344 rats. Aging (Milano), 1997, 9, 73–79.
  • Murtagh, E.M., Murphy, M.H., Murphy, N., Woods, C. and Lane, A. Stay Active – the physical activity, ageing and health study. Final Report. Mary Immaculate College and CARDI 2014.
  • Ramey, Dr., Fries, J.F. and Singh, G. In Spilker Quality of Life and Pharmacoleconomics in Clinical Trials, 2nd ed, , The Health Assessment Questionnaire 1995- Status and Review. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Pub., 227–237.
  • Kumar, N., Gupta, N. and Kishore, J. Kuppuswamy’s Socioeconomic Scale: Updating Income Ranges for the Year 2012. Ind. J. Public Health, 2012, 56.
  • Gibson, R.S. and Ferguson, E.L. An interactive 24-hr recall for assessing the adequacy of iron and zinc intakes in developing countries, ILSI Press, Washington DC 1999.
  • Borson, S., Scanlan, J., Brush, M., Vitaliano, P. and Dokmak, A. The mini-cog: a cognitive “vital signs” measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. Int. J. Geriat. Psychiat., 2000, 15, 1021–1027.
  • Blessed, G., Tomlinson, B.E. and Roth, M. The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Br. J. Psychiat., 1968, 114, 797–811.
  • Radloff, L.S. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. App. Psychol. Measure., 1977, 1, 385–401.
  • Bharathi, A.V., Sandhya, N. and Vaz, M. The development and characteristics of a physical activity questionnaire for epidemiologic studies in urban middle class Indians. Ind. J. Med. Res., 2000, 111, 95–102.
  • Sacher, G.A. Life table modifications and life prolongation. In: Hayflick L, ed, Handbook of the biology of aging. New York: Van Nostrand Reinold, 1977, 582–638.
  • Sacher, G.A. and Duffy, P.H. Genetic relation of life span to metabolic for inbred mouse strains and their hybrids. Fed. Proc., 1979, 38, 184–188.
  • Redman, L.M., Heilbronn, L.K., Martin, C.K., De Jonge, L., Williamson, D.A., Delany, J.P. and Ravussin, E. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss. PLoS One, 2009, 4, 4377.
  • Keys, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., Mickelson, O. and Taylor, H.L. The biology of human starvation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1950.
  • Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. World Health Organ. Tech. Rep. Ser., 1985, 724, 1–206.
  • Ballor, D.L. Effect of dietary restriction and/or exercise on 23-h metabolic rate and body composition in female rats. J. Appl. Physiol., 1991, 71, 801–806.
  • Rising, R., Keys, A., Ravussin, E. and Bogardus, C. Concomitant inter individual variation in body temperature and metabolic rate. Am. J. Physiol., 1992, 263, 730–734.
  • Leonie K. Heilbronn and Eric Ravussin. Calorie restriction and aging: review of the literature and implications for studies in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, 78, 361–369.
  • Sohal, R.S. and Weindruch, R. Oxidative stress, caloric restriction and aging. Sci., 1996, 273, 59–63.
  • Ahmed, T. and Haboubi, N. Assessment and management of nutrition in older people and its importance to health. Clin. Inter. Aging, 2010, 5, 207–216.
  • Kaplan, R.J., Greenwood, C.E., Winocur, G. and Wolever, T.M.S. Cognitive performance is associated with glucose regulation in healthy elderly persons and can be enhanced with glucose and dietary carbohydrates1–3. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2000, 72, 825–836.
  • Defronzo, R.A. Glucose intolerance and aging-evidence for tissue insensitivity to insulin. Diabet., 1979, 28, 1095–1101.
  • Russell, R.M. Changes in gastrointestinal function attributed to aging. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1992, 55, 1203–1207.
  • Riby, L.M., Marriott, A., Bullock, R., Hancock, J., Smallwood, J. and McLaughlin, J. The effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on memory performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2009, 63, 566–571.
  • Miekle, A., Riby, L.M. and Stollery, B. The impact of glucose ingestion and gluco regulatory control on cognitive performance: a comparison of younger and middle aged adults. Hum. Psychopharmacol. Clin. Exp., 2004, 19, 523–535.
  • Solfrizzi, V., Panza, F. and Capurso, A. The role of diet in cognitive decline. J. Neural. Transm., 2003, 110, 95–110.
  • Riddle, M.C., McKenna, M.C., Yoon, Y.J., Pattwell, S.S., Santos, P.M.G., Casey, B.J., et al. Caloric restriction enhances fear extinction learning in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2013, 38, 930–937.
  • Booth, F.W., Gordon, S.E., Carlson, C.J. and Hamilton, M.T. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J. App. Physiol., 2000, 88, 774–787.
  • Myers, J., Prakash, M., Froelicher, V., Do, D., Partington, S. and Atwood, J.E. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N. Engl. J. Med., 2002, 346, 793–801.
  • Larson, E.B., Wang, L., Bowen, J.D., McCormick, W.C., Teri, L., Crane, P., et al. Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Ann. Int. Med., 2006, 144, 73–81.
  • Van Loon, L.J.C., Greenhaff, P.L., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., Saris, W.H.M. A.J.M. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilization in humans. The J. Physiol., 2001, 536, 295–304.
  • Fox KR, The influence of physical activity on mental well being. Public Health Nutr., 1999, 2, 411–418.
  • Baker, L.D., Bayer-Carter, J.L., Skinner, J., Montine, T.J., Cholerton, B.A., Callaghan, M., et al. High-intensity physical activity modulates diet effects on cerebrospinal α-Amyloid levels in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. J. Alzheimers Dis., 2012, 28, 137–146.
  • Ortega, R.M., Requejo, A.M., Andres, P., Lopez-Sobaler, A.M., Quintas, M.E., Redondo, M.R., et al. Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1997, 66, 803–809.
  • Payne, M.E. Nutrition and late-life depression: etiological considerations. Aging health 2010, 6, 133–143.
  • Meeusen, R. Exercise, nutrition and the brain. Sports Sci. Exchan., 2013, 26, 1–6.

Abstract Views: 51

PDF Views: 0




  • Role of Physical Activity on Calorie-Induced Changes in Cognition and Depression of Young and Aged Humans

Abstract Views: 51  |  PDF Views: 0

Authors

Aindrila Das
Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700 019, India
Samir K. Ghosh
Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700 019, India
Goutam Paul
Department of Physiology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia-741 235, West Bengal, India
Mrinal K. Poddar
Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700 019, India

Abstract


Normal aging is known to encounter stress. Association of aging with declining cognition and elevated depression is a phenomenon which can be modulated by lifestyle. Caloric restriction down regulates normal aging by lowering stress and has been found to protect aging processes. The present study assessed the effect of Calorie Restriction (CR) and Physical Activity (PA) on aging-induced changes on cognition and depression. Healthy male aged (20-35 years; N=312) and (55-70 years; N=392) were considered from low income and middle education population. Data related to socioeconomic status, health status, cognitive performance by mini-cog and 6CIT, depression by CES-D Scale, PA Level (PAL) and calorie intake were collected through questionnaires. AP (at-par) diet (amount consumed equivalent to the amount of energy required for 24 h) reduced cognitive function of the aged group compared to the young of the same calorie group without affecting their depression under similar conditions. CR diet improved cognition with a lowering of depression in the young subjects compared to aged of the same group. High PAL in comparison to low PAL irrespective of age and calorie intake positively modulated cognition and depression of the subjects. These results suggest that (a) young population with CR diet and aged population with AP diet are benefitted in both cognitive ability and depression (b) high PAL unlike low PAL improved both cognition and depression of both young and aged population irrespective of their calorie intake.

Keywords


Aging, Calorie Restriction, Cognitive Function, Depression, Physical Activity.

References