Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Economic Returns, Nutrients Status and Nitrogen Uptake in Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Planting Methods and Nitrogen Levels
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2015 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to study the effect of three planting methods (flat, ridge and bed) and five nitrogen levels (0, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kg ha-1) on economic returns, nutrients status and nitrogen uptake in Kharif maize. Among various planting methods, bed planting produced significantly higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio as compared to flat sowing method but it was statistically at par with ridge sowing method. The gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio were increased with increase in each level of nitrogen upto 180 kg N ha-1, however, the significant response was only observed upto 150 kg N ha-1. Maximum nitrogen uptake of 115.3 kg ha-1in grains and 40.4 kg ha-1 in stover was observed under bed planting which was at par with ridge sowing method but significantly higher than flat sowing method. Application of 150 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly higher nitrogen uptake in grains and stover over control, 90 kg N ha-1 and 120 kg N ha-1 but was at par with 180 kg N ha-1. Available nitrogen status in soil after harvesting of maize was not significantly affected by different planting methods. Maximum available nitrogen status in soil (146.8 kg ha-1) was recorded after the application of 180 kg N ha-1 to maize which was significantly higher than control (105.7), 90 kg N ha-1 (122.0 kg ha-1) and 120 kg N ha-1 (135.3 kg ha-1) but was at par with 150 kg N ha-1 (141.2 kg ha-1) at depth of 0-15 cm. Different planting methods and nitrogen levels did not significantly influence the plant stand and available phosphorus and potassium status in soil after harvesting of maize. So, it may be concluded that for getting higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio, maize may be grown on beds with application of 150 kg N ha-1.
Maize, Planting Methods, Nitrogen, Economic Returns, Nitrogen Uptake, Soil Status.
- Al-Kaisi, M. M. and Yin, X. (2003). Effects of nitrogen rate, irrigation rate and plant population on corn yield and water use efficiency. Agron. J., 95: 1475-82.
- Brar, B. S., Dhillon, N. S. and Chhina, H. S. (2001). Integrated use of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers in maize (Zea mays L.). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 71: 605-07.
- Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. (1967). Experimental designs. Asia Publishing House, Bombay (M.S.) India.
- Fahong, W., Xuging, W. and Sayer, K. D. (2004).Comparison of conventional, flood irrigated, flat planted with furrow irrigated raised bed planting for winter wheat in China. Field Crops Res., 87: 35-42.
- Freeman, K.W., Girma, K., Teal, D. B., Klaat, A. and Raun, W. R. (2007). Winter wheat grain yield and grain nitrogen influenced by bed and conventional planting systems. J. Pl. Nutr., 30: 611-22.
- Habtegebrial, K., Singh, B. R. and Haile, M. (2007). Impact of tillage and nitrogen fertilization on yield, nitrogen use efficiency of tef Eragrostis, Trotter and soil properties. Soil & Till. Res., 94: 55-63.
- Jalota, S. K. and Arora, V. K. (2002). Model-based assessment of water balance components under different cropping systems in north-west India. Agric. Water Manage., 57: 75-87.
- Kaur, J. (2013). Spring maize (Zea mays L.) productivity as influenced by nitrogen in relation to irrigation regimes and planting methods. M.Sc.Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab (India).
- Kaur, T. and Mahey, R. K. (2005). Effect of planting methods on nutrient uptake and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Environ. Ecol., 23: 849-52.
- Kumar, A. (2009). Production potential and nitrogen- use efficiency of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by different planting densities and nitrogen levels. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 79: 231-255.
- Mehta, S., Bedi, S. and Vashist, K. K. (2010). Performance of winter maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid to planting methods and nitrogen levels. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 81: 50-54.
- Merwin, H. D. and Peech, M. (1950). Exchangeability of soil potassium in sand, silt and clay fractions as influenced by the nature of the complementary exchangeable cations. Soil Sci. Am. Proc., 15: 125-28.
- Mishra, B. N., Singh, B. and Rajput, A. L. (2001).Yield quality and economics as influenced by winter maize (Zea mays L.) based cropping system in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian J. Agron., 46: 425-431.
- Olsen, S.R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. and Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circ., 939: 1-19.
- Parija, B. (2011). Performance ofKharif maize under different levels of farmyard manure and nitrogen. M.Sc.Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab (India).
- Ramu, Y.R. and Reddy, D. S. (2007). Yield, nutrient uptake and economics of hybrid maize as influenced by plant stand, levels and time of nitrogen application. Crop Res., 33: 41-45.
- Sayer, K. D. (2003). Raised-bed cultivation. In: Rattan Lal (ed.) Encyclopedia of soil science. pp 1-4. Taylor and Francis.
- Scharf, P.C., William, J.W. and John, A.L. (2002). Corn yield response to nitrogen fertilizer timing and deficiency level. Agron J., 94: 435-441.
- Singh, D.P., Rana, N.S. and Singh, R. P. (2000). Dry matter production and nitrogen uptake in winter maize (Zea mays L.) based intercropping system under different levels of nitrogen. Indian J. Agron., 45: 676-80.
- Subbiah, B.V. and Asija, G.L. (1956). A rapid procedure for estimation of available nitrogen in soil. Curr. Sci., 25: 259-260.
Abstract Views: 47
PDF Views: 0