Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Open Access Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Restricted Access Subscription Access

Social Exclusion and Naxalism:Introspection from Tribal Perspective


Affiliations
1 Department of Social Work, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
     

   Subscribe/Renew Journal


The ongoing Naxalism or Left Wing Extremism has severely challenged the internal security and the development of nation. Though it has affected the entire population and nation as a whole, it is the tribals who suffer the most. They are often caught in the crossfire between the extremists and security forces. Besides, as a socially excluded group, tribals have been deprived from the benefits of development for years. As a result, they remain behind in all developmental indicators as compare to other social groups. At present, it is generally perceived that the emergence of Naxalite movement is rooted in the peasant unrests and class conflicts; it is not the only reason. Though, a plenty of literature have dealt various causes of Naxalism but very few of them have looked social exclusion as the root cause of emergence of Naxalism. It is in this context that the present paper makes an attempt to explain the role of social exclusion in the emergence of Naxalism in India. It also discusses the economic, educational and health problems of tribals as well as human rights violations in left wing extremist affected areas, with special reference to Chhattisgarh.

Keywords

Social Exclusion, Left Wing Extremism, Caste System, Colonisation, Displacement, Red Corridor, Human Rights Violation.
User
Subscription Login to verify subscription
Notifications
Font Size

  • Asian Centre for Human Rights. (2006). The Adivasis of Chhattisgarh: Victims of the Naxalite movement and Salwa Judum campaign. Retrieved from http://www.achrweb.org/reports/india/Chattis0106.pdf.
  • Asian Centre for Human Rights. (2008). India human rights report 2008. Retrieved from http://www.achrweb.org/reports/india/AR08/AR2008.pdf.
  • Chaudhary, M., Rai, S., Thatte, P., & Saheed. (2013). Caught in crossfire: Children and education in regions affected by civil strife. India: Save the Children.
  • Chugh, S. (2014). Civil Strife and education of children: A study of districts affected by left wing extremism. Journal of Indian Education, 40(1), 15-36.
  • Committee Against Violence On Women. (2006). Salwa Judum and violence on women in Dantewara, Chhattisgarh. Retrieved from https://cpjc.files.wordpress.com/2007/07/cavow-sj-ff-report.pdf.
  • Dahat, P. (2016, January 22). Eight tribal women allege gang-rape by security forces in Bijapur. The Hindu. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/otherstates/Eight-tribal-women-allege-gang-rape-by-security-forces-inBijapur/article14014055.ece.
  • Duary, N., & Haldar, A. K. (2006). Eduaction among the Lodha of West Bengal. In P. Dash Sharma (Ed.), Anthropology of primitive tribes in India (pp. 130150). India: Serials Publications.
  • Dungdung, G. (2017). Roots of Naxalism. Sathi Johar. Retrieved from http://saathijohaar.com/2017/04/30/naxalwaad.html.
  • Ekka, A., & Ekka, N. S. (2013). Traditional health care in Birhor tribes of Chhattisgarh. Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 3(4), 476-483.
  • Gandhi, M. (2014). Education of tribal children: A need for improvised pedagogy. Journal of Indian Education, 40(1), 5-16.
  • Ghose, D., & Anand, U. (2016, October 22). Security forces burnt 160 homes in Chhattisgarh village in March 2011: CBI. The India Express. Retrieved from http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/security-forces-burnt-160-homes-in-chhattisgarh-village-tadmetla-says-cbi-march-2011-3096011/.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2008). Being neutral is our biggest crime: Government, vigilante, and Naxalite abuses in India’s Chhattisgarh State. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2008/india0708/india0708web.pdf.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2012). Between two sets of Guns: Attacks on civil society activists in India’s Maoist conflict. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/india0712ForUpload.pdf.
  • Jain, S. K. (2007). Excluded life: Sahria a document about the boycott of primitive tribes and abduction of authority. Madhya Pradesh: Media for Rights.
  • Jain, Y., Raman K., Sushil, P., Suhas, K., Anju, K., Rachna, J., ... Sharayu, S. (2015). Burden & pattern of illnesses among the tribal communities in central India: A report from a community health programme. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 141(5), 663-672.
  • Kakkoth, S. (2005). The primitive tribal groups of Kerala: A situational appraisal. Stud. Tribes Tribals, 3(1), 47-55.
  • Kujur, J. M. (2013). Development-induced displacement in Chhattisgarh: A case study from tribal perspective. Social Action, 58, 32-39.
  • Kumar, S. (2017). Education of children and civil strife in Chhattisgarh. Economic & Political Weekly, 52(36), 26-29.
  • Marwah, V. (2009). India in Turmoil. New Delhi: Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs. (2016). Lok Sabha unstarred question No.828. Retrieved From http://mha1.nic.in/par2013/par2016-pdfs/ls-010316/828.pdf.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs. (2017). Statistics of LWE violence during 2011 to 2017 (upto 15.08. 2017). Retrieved from http://mha.nic.in/sites/upload_files/mha/files/LWE_28082017.PDF
  • Mohapatra, S., & Jayasooriya, C. (2007). Conflict, war & displacement: Accounts of Chhattisgarh & Batticalo. India: Mahanirban Calcutta Research Group.
  • National Human Right Commission. (2017, January 7). NHRC finds 16 women prima facie victims of rape, sexual and physical assault by police personnel in Chhattisgarh; Asks the State Government why it should not recommend interim relief of Rs. 37 lakh to the victims. [Press release]. Retrieved from http://nhrc.nic.in/dispArchive.asp?fno=34165.
  • Pastakia, A., Pradip P., Mahapatra, S. K., Pandeya, S., & Rath, B. (2012). Identifying livelihood promotion strategies for particularly vulnerable tribal groups under NRLM. India: United Nation Development Programme.
  • Planning Commission. (2008). Development challenges in extremist affected areas: Report of an Expert Group. New Delhi: Government of India.
  • Rani, M. (2013). Educational deprivation in primitive tribal groups: A case study of Karnataka. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 3(5), 45-57.
  • Sen, S. (2017). Class struggle and patriarchy: Women in the Maoist movement. Economic & Political Weekly, 52(21), 56-60.
  • Srivastava, R. S. (2005). Bonded labour in India: Its incidence and pattern. Geneva: International Labour Office. Retrieved from http://www.digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.educgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&context=forcedlabor.
  • Subramanyam, V., & Sekhar. (2010). Social exclusion, integration and inclusive policies. India: Rawat Publications.
  • Verma, S. (2011). Far reaching consequences of the Naxalite problem in India. United States: Rakshak Foundation.
  • Xaxa, V., Ramanathan, U., Bara, J., Misra, K. K., Bang, A., Basant S., & Panda, H. (2014). Report of the High Level Committee on socio economic, health and educational status of tribal communities of India. Retrieved from https://www.kractivist.org/wp-content/.../12/Tribal-Committee-Report-MayJune-2014.pdf.

Abstract Views: 11

PDF Views: 1




  • Social Exclusion and Naxalism:Introspection from Tribal Perspective

Abstract Views: 11  |  PDF Views: 1

Authors

Gajanand
Department of Social Work, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Abstract


The ongoing Naxalism or Left Wing Extremism has severely challenged the internal security and the development of nation. Though it has affected the entire population and nation as a whole, it is the tribals who suffer the most. They are often caught in the crossfire between the extremists and security forces. Besides, as a socially excluded group, tribals have been deprived from the benefits of development for years. As a result, they remain behind in all developmental indicators as compare to other social groups. At present, it is generally perceived that the emergence of Naxalite movement is rooted in the peasant unrests and class conflicts; it is not the only reason. Though, a plenty of literature have dealt various causes of Naxalism but very few of them have looked social exclusion as the root cause of emergence of Naxalism. It is in this context that the present paper makes an attempt to explain the role of social exclusion in the emergence of Naxalism in India. It also discusses the economic, educational and health problems of tribals as well as human rights violations in left wing extremist affected areas, with special reference to Chhattisgarh.

Keywords


Social Exclusion, Left Wing Extremism, Caste System, Colonisation, Displacement, Red Corridor, Human Rights Violation.

References