Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy


Affiliations
1 Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI), Jl. Raya Kendalpayak Km 8 P.O. Box 66, Malang 65101, Indonesia
 

Entering the third millennium food and energy crisis is becoming more serious in line with water scarcity amid of climate change induced by global warming, that so called as FEWS (food energy and water scarcity). In the last five decades Indonesian agricultural development of food crops had been emphasized on cereals and grains based. Conversion of forest into agricultural field in the form of upland and lowland facilitated by irrigation is prioritized for cereals such as rice, maize as well as grain legumes such as soybean, peanut etc. Unfortunately, root crops which their main yield underground are neglected. At the end of second millennium Indonesia was seriously suffered from multi-crisis economic trap, so Indonesia as part of countries under World Food Program to import the huge of food to cover domestic consumption such as rice, wheat, soybean, corn etc. On the other hand, consumption of energy was also increase significantly. These conditions triggering government to stimulate integrated agricultural enterprises for providing abundance of food as well as adequate renewable energy. Although root crops were neglected previously, however from its biological potential to produce biomass promotes root crops into an appropriate position. The variability of root crops which ecologically can be grown from upland in dry areas till swampy submergence condition. Forest conversion into agricultural land is not allowed due to forest is useful to prevent global warming. Therefore, food, feed and fuel (renewable energy) production have to be able grown under agro-forestry. Fortunately the potential of root crops has competency to meet the current need to fulfil food, feed and fuel as well as fibre under future greener environment.

Keywords

Root Crops, Food, Feed, Renewable Energy, Agro-Forestry.
User
Notifications
Font Size


  • Arrhenius, S. 1896. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science Series 5, Volume 41, April 1896 pp 237-276. The London, Edinburgh and Dublin. PDF File down loaded from http/www.globalwarmingart.com
  • BPS. (1982-2012) Statistik Indonesia. Statistic Indonesia. Statistical Year Book of Indonesia 1981 to 2011. Badan Pusat Statistik Jakarta Indonesia.
  • Bakker, S.J.A. (2006) CDM and Biofuel: Can the CDM Assist Biofuel Production and Deployment? Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, the Netherlands.
  • Burney, A. (2008) Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science, University of Karachi, Pakistan. p 22.
  • Carbon Initiative World Bank (2009) Carbon Initiative Help Desk World Bank. www. world bank. org. An answer of email from committee to yudi_atas@yahoo.com.
  • CIP. (2001) Broadening boundaries in agriculture: Impact on health habitat and hunger. International Potato Centre. Annual Report 2001. Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP) Lima Peru. 106 p.
  • Conforti, P. and Sarris, A. (2011) Challenges and policies for the world agricultural and food economy in the 2050 perspective. In Global Information Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) for a world without hunger. Pp 509-539.
  • Direktorat Jendral Planologi Kehutanan/DJPK (2012) Informasi Pemanfaatan Hutan Khususnya pada Kawasan Hutan Produksi. Sub Direktorat Penyiapan Areal Pemanfaatan Hutan. Diunduh dari www. dephut.go.id. pada tanggal 3 Desember 2012.
  • Eco Summit. (2007) Beijing Eco Declaration Draft. Ecological Complexity and Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for 21th Century's Ecology. China Academy of Sciences (CAS) Jiuhua Beijing. 4p.
  • Flach, M and Rumawas, F. (Eds.). (1996) Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 9. Plants yielding non-seed carbohydrate. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 237 p.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization/FAO (2012) Crops Prospect and Food Situation. FAO, Rome. No 4 p 33. December 2012.
  • Global Perspective Study Units, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (2006) Prospect for food nutrition agriculture and major commodity groups: World Agriculture Towards 2030/2050. FAO, Rome. 71p.
  • Green Peace. (2012) 1. Solution for Climate Change. 2. It's basic: small-scale farmers produce the majority of the world's food. Downloaded from website www.greenpeace. International May 1, 2012.
  • Hale, J. (2013) The Three Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods. Psych Central. Retrieved on February 15, 2013, from http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2011/09/27/the-3-basic-types-of-descriptive-research-methods/
  • Helimenstine, A.M. 2013. On This Day in Science History-September 29- Rudolf Diesel Mystery. About. com Chemistry. www.chemistry.about.com/September 29.2013.
  • IFOAM. (2000) Basic Standard for Organic Production and Processing. Decided by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) General Assembly in Basel, Switzerland, September 2000.
  • IFOAM (2011) Growing Organic: Information and Resource for Developing Sustainable Organic Sector. www. ifoam.org. Downloaded February 10, 2011.
  • Jin-torng Peng, (2010) Overview and prospects of edible and medicinal mushrooms: production, consumption and marketing in Taiwan. Food & Fertilizer Technology Center (FFTC) Extension Bulletin 637. 7 p.
  • Kementerian Pertanian, (2011) Statistik Pertanian Indonesia. Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian. Jakarta. 303 p.
  • MacDonald, L.H. (1982) Agro-forestry in the Africa Humid Tropics. Proc. Of a Workshop held in Ibadan Nigeria. 27 April - 1 May 1981. The United Nations University. 171p.
  • Mayrowani, H., Tri Pranaji, Sumaryanto, A. Agustian, Syahyuti dan R. Elizabeth, (2004) Studi prospek dan kendala penerapan reforma agraria di sektor pertanian. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Departemen Pertanian. Ringkasan Eksekutif. 9 p.
  • Neue, H.U. (1993) Methane emission from rice fields: wetland rice fields make a major contribution in global warming. Bioscience 43(7):466-73.
  • Nguyen, N.V. (2008) Global Climate Change and Rice Food Security. Executive Secretary, International Rice Commission Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Rome. Pp 24-30. ww.fao.org/rice/global climate (downloaded December 28, 2008).
  • Setiawan, B. (2006) Ekonomi Pasar yang Neo-liberalistik versus Ekonomi yang Berkeadilan Sosial. Makalah disampaikan pada Diskusi Publik "Ekonomi Pasar yang Berkeadilan Sosial" yang diadakan oleh 'Forum Komunikasi Partai Politik dan Politisi untuk Reformasi' tanggal 12 Juni 2006 di DPR-RI, Jakarta. 12 p.
  • Siregar, M and Sugino, T. (2008) Impact Analysus of Expanding Biomass Energy Use to Rural Poverty in Tropical Asia. CAPSA Working Paper No.103. UNESCAP-CAPSA. 61p.
  • Suhardjito, D., Sundawati, L., Suyanto, Utami, S.R. (2003) Aspek Sosial Ekonomi dan Budaya Agroforestri (Socio-economy Aspect in the Agro-forestry Cultivation). Bahan Ajaran Agroforestri 5. World Agrodorestry Center (ICRAF). 42p.
  • United Nations. (2008) The Millennium Development Goals Report. End Poverty Millennium Development Goals 2015, Make it Happen. 56p.
  • United Nations Development Program/UNDP. (2009) About the Millennium Development Goals Basic, What are the Millennium Development Goals? www. undp.org (downloaded February 13, 2009).
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change /UNFCCC. (2009) Reduction Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD): A recommendation from Bali Road Map. www. unfccc.org (downloaded February 10, 2009).
  • Widodo, Y. (1995) Ubi-ubian potensi dan prospeknya untuk dimanfaatkan dalam program diversifikasi. Majalah Pangan Media Komunikasi dan Informasi Nomor 22 (VI):46-55.
  • Widodo. Y. (2012a) Food from the forest of Java: tropical agroforestry experiences in feeding dwellers and keeping the environment greener. In C.A, Brebbia (Ed.) SUSTAINABILITY TODAY. Wessex Institute of Technology (WIT) Press, Southampton, Boston. Printed in UK. Pp 281-393.
  • Widodo, Y. (2012b) Ubi-ubian dalam Wanatani: Sumbangsih Kearifan Lokal guna Mewujudkan Kedaulatan Pangan (Root crops under Agro-forestry: Contribution of Indegenous Knowledge for realizing Food Sovereignty). Dalam Buku 2 Prosiding Seminar Nasional UNS. Pp 332-353.
  • Widodo, Y. dan Radjit, B.S. (2013) Kinerja Wanatani: Telaah Keunggulan dari Sisi Ekonomi Kreatif (Agro-forestry Performance: Advantages Elaboration from the Side of Creative Economy). Dalam Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perhepi-UNS. Pp 372-391.

Abstract Views: 183

PDF Views: 89




  • Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy

Abstract Views: 183  |  PDF Views: 89

Authors

Yudi Widodo
Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI), Jl. Raya Kendalpayak Km 8 P.O. Box 66, Malang 65101, Indonesia
St. A. Rahayuningsih
Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI), Jl. Raya Kendalpayak Km 8 P.O. Box 66, Malang 65101, Indonesia
Nasir Saleh
Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI), Jl. Raya Kendalpayak Km 8 P.O. Box 66, Malang 65101, Indonesia
Sri Wahyuningsih
Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI), Jl. Raya Kendalpayak Km 8 P.O. Box 66, Malang 65101, Indonesia

Abstract


Entering the third millennium food and energy crisis is becoming more serious in line with water scarcity amid of climate change induced by global warming, that so called as FEWS (food energy and water scarcity). In the last five decades Indonesian agricultural development of food crops had been emphasized on cereals and grains based. Conversion of forest into agricultural field in the form of upland and lowland facilitated by irrigation is prioritized for cereals such as rice, maize as well as grain legumes such as soybean, peanut etc. Unfortunately, root crops which their main yield underground are neglected. At the end of second millennium Indonesia was seriously suffered from multi-crisis economic trap, so Indonesia as part of countries under World Food Program to import the huge of food to cover domestic consumption such as rice, wheat, soybean, corn etc. On the other hand, consumption of energy was also increase significantly. These conditions triggering government to stimulate integrated agricultural enterprises for providing abundance of food as well as adequate renewable energy. Although root crops were neglected previously, however from its biological potential to produce biomass promotes root crops into an appropriate position. The variability of root crops which ecologically can be grown from upland in dry areas till swampy submergence condition. Forest conversion into agricultural land is not allowed due to forest is useful to prevent global warming. Therefore, food, feed and fuel (renewable energy) production have to be able grown under agro-forestry. Fortunately the potential of root crops has competency to meet the current need to fulfil food, feed and fuel as well as fibre under future greener environment.

Keywords


Root Crops, Food, Feed, Renewable Energy, Agro-Forestry.

References