Risk Factors for Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media among Children under the Age of Fifteen Years in Sokoto Metropolis, North-Western Nigeria
Background: The identified risk factors for chronic suppurative otitis media varied.
Aims and objectives: To determine the frequency of the risk factors among children with chronic suppurative otitis media and suggest preventive measures.
Methodology: This was a 9-year retrospective study from June, 2006 to May, 2015 at the ENT out-patient department of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Data from the case note were analysed for: biodata, patient education, parent education, tribe, socioeconomic status, breast feeding, bottle feeding, site, URTI, medical history, complications and treatment outcome. Data was analysed by descriptive statistic using IBM.SPSS version 21.0.
Results: A total of five thousand six hundred and sixteen (5,616) children below the age of15 years were managed in the ENT out-patient Department during the study period. Of the 5,616 children 180 (3.2%) had chronic suppurative otitis media, comprising 93 (51.7%) males and 87 (48.3%) females with male to female ratio of 1.1: 1.
Age group 1-5 years were most affected with 89 (49.4%) patients. Primary school children accounted for 69 (38.3%), most of the children came from large family and majority of these parents 160 (88.9%) lacked western education. One hundred and thirty-two (73.3%) of the children had upper respiratory tract infection. Surgical treatment was only done for 12 (6.7%) cases and hearing loss 32 (17.8%) was the major complication, followed by mastoid abscesses and cholesteatoma 2 (1.1%) each.
Conclusion: The identified risk factors for the chronic suppurative otitis media in this study were overcrowding, upper respiratory tract infection and lower socioeconomic status. The disease and its’ preventable complications can be avoided by health education and effective treatment.
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