Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
The Democratization of Public Space: Insurgent or Institutional Occupation of Puerta del Sol in Madrid?
Demonstrations in public squares all around the world have, since 2011, highlighted opportunities and challenges for public space both socially and spatially. In Madrid, Spain, the temporary occupation of Puerta del Sol's square provided that location with a new symbolic meaning. Recently, Madrid's administrations and corporations have launched a competition. Under the pretext of adding benches and trees to the historic paved square, there may be an explicit attempt of transforming Sol into what Sharon Zukin calls a "place of consumption," reverting Sol's meaning as a symbol of democracy. While most cities are transforming their squares and parks into controlled and restricted places, this research questions their true level of democracy. In an analysis of Puerta del Sol's recent events, this paper argues that planning and design professionals, public processes, and policies tended to privilege those in power. The paper shows how public spaces today should deal with the ambivalence of being both a place for enacting (institutional) and a place for action (insurgent). This may lead towards less rigid and regulated design principles and more inclusive, democratic, and flexible public processes of decision-making.
Occupation of Public Space, Institutional Space, Insurgent Space.
- Arendt, H. 1958. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Algaba Calderon, F. "Spain in the square - Yes, we camp", papers.15M.cc. En http://papers.15m.cc/p/listado-de-papers.html. Retrieved December 2012.
- Bergua Amores, J. A. 2007. Lo social instituyente: materiales para una sociologia no clasica. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza.
- Cabrera Vinas, J. 2012. "Nature and organization of actituds", papers.15M.cc. En http://papers.15m.cc/p/listado-de-papers.html. Retrieved December 2012.
- Callejo, A.C. 2012. "#15M: From Twitter to the square", in papers.15M.cc. http://papers.15m.cc/p/listado-de-papers.html. Retrieved December 2012.
- Calhoun, C. 2002. Contemporary Sociological Theory, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Castells, M. 1983. The City and the Grass Roots, California: University of California Press.
- Cooper, A. 2012. "Places that Matter", Beyond Zuccotti Park. Oakland California: New Village Press, p. 205-213.
- De Certau, M. 1984. The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Duncan and Duncan. 2006. "Aesthetics, Abjection, and White Privilege in Suburban New York". Landscape and Race in the United States Journal, 2006, pp. 157-185.
- Gehl, J. 2010. Cities for People. Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
- Grueso, S. 2012. "15M movements of occupation, the collective expression of displeasure" in TEDxBuenosAires 2012 (San Martin Theatre, May 2012), TEDx.
- Grueso, S. 2012. Excellent, revulsive, important. Spain: madrid15m.cc.
- Hou, J. 2010. Insurgent Public Space. USA: Routledge.
- Hou, J. 2012. "Making Public, Beyond Public Space", Beyond Zuccotti Park. Oakland California: New Village Press, p. 156-169.
- Hugill, D., and Thorburn, E. 2012. "Interview with 'Bifo': Reactivating the Social Body in Insurrectionary Times", in The Berkeley Planning Journal, "New Spaces of Insurgency", Volume 25, Issue 1, p. 210-220.
- Innenarity, D. 2006. El nuevo espacio publico. Espana: Espasa Libros.
- Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. UK: Modern Library.
- Jaque, A. 2011. "15M and YES WE CAMP!", in Domus. www.domusweb.it/en/op-ed/15m-and-yes-we-camp-controversy-as-urbanism/. Retrieved December 2012.
- Lefebvre, H. 1991. The Production of Space. Cambridge: Blackwell.
- Martin Patino, B. 2012. 15-M, free I want to you. Spain: Martin Patino.
- Martinez Galera, A. 2012. "Essay on the group 15M", papers.15M.cc, in http://papers.15m.cc/p/listado-de-papers.html [Retrieved December 2012].
- Massey, J., and Snyder, B. 2012. "Occupying Wall Street: Places and Spaces of Political Action", en The Design Observer Group, volumen Forum of Design for the Public Realm. http://places.designobserver.com/feature/occupy-wall-street-places-and-spacesof-political-action/35938/. Retrieved December 2012.
- MASSEY, D. 2005. For Space. London: Sage.
- Nez, H. 2011. "The movement of indignant is anchored in the districts of Madrid" in Metropolitiques.eu, Terrains Volume. http://www.metropolitiques.eu/Le-mouvementdes-indignes-s-ancre.html. Retrieved December 2012.
- Observatorio Metropolitano. 2009. Manifesto for Madrid: Critic and Crisis of the Metropolitan Model. Madrid: Traficantes de Suenos.
- Ramirez, J 2012. "Urbanismo de Revuelta" in Arquitectura Viva, "Colectivos Espanoles", 145, p. 112.
- Rios, M. 2012. "Emplacing Democratic Design", Beyond Zuccotti Park. Oakland California: New Village Press, p. 133-140.
- Romanos, E. 2012. "Esta revolucion es muy copyleft; Entrevista a Stephane M. Grueso a proposito del 15M", in Interface, a Journal for and about social movements 4, vol.1, p. 183-206.
- Sassen, S. 2011. "The Global Street: Making the Political", in Globalizations 8 (5): p. 565-571.
- Savater, F. 2012. "Un triunfo del 15-M", in El PAiS, November 20 2012.
- Segal, Paula Z. (2012): "Room to grow something", Beyond Zuccotti Park. Oakland California: New Village Press, p. 156-169.
- Soja, E. 2000. Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions. USA: Blackwell publishing.
- Vidania, C. 2012. "Lavapies. CSA /Os. Self-sustaining and/or occupied social centers", in Rehab, integrated urban regeneration (October 2012), scientific coordination by Agustin Hernandez Aja. Technical School of Architecture Madrid.
- Villegas, B. "Summary Arquitectura Viva 145: Spanish groups", in arquitextonica, vol. October 2012. http://arquitextonica.net/2012/10/26/revistas-arquitectura-viva-145-colectivosespanoles/.Retrieved December 2012.
- Ynzenga, B. 2013. "Past, present and future of the city of Madrid, from urban planning perspective", in COAM (Architectural Association Madrid, March 2013), Madrid.
- Zubalbeascoa, A. "Aquise vende Centro de Ciudad", El Pais. Retrieved January 05, 2014.
- Zukin, S. 1996. The Cultures of Cities. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract Views: 845
PDF Views: 0