Open Access Subscription Access
Gender Prediction:Anthropometric Study of Mastoid Process and Foramen Magnum
Introduction: Sex determination of human skeletal remains is considered as an initial step in identification. Sex determination of fragmented skeletal remains has immensely helped in identification of an individual. Foramen Magnum is an integral component of studies on skull in particular interest for anthropology, anatomy, forensic medicine, and other medical fields. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mastoid process and foramen magnum measurements as a tool for sex determination in unidentified skeleton. Methods: Seventy seven completely undamaged skulls of known sex in book record were used for the study. Adult crania (age ranges between 20-70 years) of known sex were obtained from various sources. Adult skulls of mature individuals, without destruction of mastoid process in the region of the craniometrical points, were chosen for the study. Skulls that showed evidence of injury/fracture or deformity were excluded from this study. A measurement of the mastoid and foramen magnum was done as per Moore-Jansen et al. 1994, using vernier/sliding calipers (0.01mm) and craniophore. Analysis was done using IBM – Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 21. The means between the male and female samples were compared for significance using the Student’s t – test. Results: Out of the 77 skulls studied, 45 were male and 32 were females. In male, mastoid length mean is 2.82, whereas in female it is 2.51. In male the mastoid width mean is 1.57 and in female is 1.38. Statistics revealed high significance in mastoid length and mastoid width (p value: 0.01 and 0.012 respectively). Mastoid index did not show much significance. Conclusion: Our study revealed statistically significant parameters (p<0.05) in mastoid length and mastoid breath. Reports on the use of mastoid process and foramen magnum as a tool for sex determination in unidentified human skeleton has been reported in different populations.
Sex Determination Mastoid Length, Sexual Dimorphism, South Indian Population.
- Last, RJ. Eugene wolff‘s anatomy of the eye and orbit in: the orbit and paranasal sinuses. 6th ed. London: HK Lewis and Co. Ltd; 1968. p. 1-29.
- Sivagami AV. A simple and cost-effective method for preparing DNA from the hard tooth tissue, and its use in polymerase chain reaction amplification of amelogenin gene segment for sex determination in an Indian population. Forensic Sci Int 2000;110:107-15.
- Stone AC. Sex determination of ancient human skeletons using DNA. Am J Phys Anthropol 1996;99:231-8.
- Valdes CG. Antropologia forense. Madrid: Taller Escuela Artes Graficas 1991:569-615.
- Collet D. Modeling binary data. London: Chapman and Hall; 1991.
- Moore-Jansen PH, Ousley SD, Jantz RJ. Data collection procedures for forensic skeletal material. 3rd ed. Univ of Tennessee, Knoxville: Department of Anthropology; 1994.
- Nakahashi Takahiro, Nagai. Sex assessment of fragmentary skeletal remains. J of Anthropology Society of Nippon 1986;94(3);289-306.
- Coin CG, Malkasian. Foramen magnum. In: Newton TH, Potts DG eds. Radiology of the skull and brain: the skull. Mosby: St. Louis; 1971. p. 275– 347.
- Sayee R, Janakiram S, Thomas IM. Foramen magnum measurements of crania from karnataka. J Anat Soc India 1987;36:87-89.
- Berge JK, Bergman RA. Variations in size and in symmetry of foramina of the human skull. Clin Anat 2001;14:406–13.
- Kizilkanat Emine Dondu, Boyan Neslihan. Morphometry of hypoglossal canal, occipital condyle and foramen magnum. Neurosurgery Quarterly 2006;16(3):121- 5.
- Deshmukh AG, Devershi DB. Comparison of cranial sex determination by univariate and multivariate analysis. J Anat Soc India 2006;55:48-51.
- Damiani, Borelli, NS, Melo, HJF, Lima, RS and Nobeschi. Morphometry and spatial correlation of the foramen magnum and spinal cord through MRI. J Morphol Sci 2012;29(2):87-90.
- YP. Raghavendra Babu, Tanuj Kanchan, Yamini Attiku, Prashanth Narayan Dixit, MS Kotian. Sex estimation from foramen magnum dimensions in an Indian population. J of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2012;19:162-7.
- Radhakrishna S, Shivarama C, Ramakrishna A, Bhagya B. Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum for sex determination in south Indian population. Nite University J of Health Sci 2012;2(1):20-22.
- Singh and Talwar. Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum in human skull for sex determination. Human Biology Review 2013;2(1):29-41.
- Muralidhar P Shepur, Magi M, Nanjundappa B, Pavan P Havaldar, Premalatha Gogi, Shaik Hussain Saheb. Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum. Int J Anat res 2014;2(1):249-55.
Abstract Views: 50
PDF Views: 0