Open Access Subscription Access
Studies on Butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera) Diversity across Different Urban Landscapes of Delhi, India
The present study deals with the diversity of butterflies along with the contrasting six selected land-use types and three major seasons in Delhi for the years 2015–16 and 2016–17. Among the 40 species of butterflies recorded, family Nymphalidae (13 spp.) showed the highest species diversity. Species richness was found to be the highest during monsoon season, whereas among the six different study sites, Aravalli Biodiversity Park, New Delhi had the highest biodiversity index. Earlier studies have been confined up to species listing and documentation, whereas mathematical interpretations through biodiversity indices concerning increasing urbanization were neglected. The findings of this study indicate the significance of green patches within urban infrastructure in the cities to support a wide array of butterflies.
Biodiversity, Butterflies, Green Areas, Landscape, Urban.
- Lintott, P. R., Bunnefeld, N., Montemayor, E. F., Minderman, F., Blackmore, L. M., Goulson, D. and Kirsty, J. P., Moth species richness, abundance and diversity in fragmented urban woodlands: implications for conservation and management strategies. Biodivers. Conserv., 2014, 23(11), 2875–2901.
- Kuhn, E., Feldmann, R., Harpke, A., Hirneisen, N., Musche, M., Leopold, P. and Settele, J., Getting the public involved in butterfly conservation: lessons learned from a new monitoring scheme in Germany. Israel J. Ecol. Evol., 2008, 54, 89–103.
- Venkataramana, S. P., Biodiversity and conservation of butterflies in the Eastern Ghats. Ecoscan, 2010, 4(1), 59–67.
- Longstaff, G. B. and Müller, F., Butterfly-Hunting in Many Lands: Notes of a field Naturalist, Longmans, Green & Co, 1912, pp. 51– 140.
- Jandu, A. S., Some butterflies from Delhi. Indian J. Entomol., 1941, 3(2), 336–337; 1942, 4(2), 201–214; 1943, 5(1–2), 223–241.
- Donahue, J. P., An annotated list of butterflies of Delhi, India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1966, 63(2), 235–260; 1967, 64(1), 22–48.
- Ashton, R., Butterflies of New Delhi (Papilionidae). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1972, 69(3), 502–507.
- Sevastopulo, D. G., Butterflies of New Delhi. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1975, 72(3), 870–871.
- Kumar, A., Khanna, V. and Mitra, A., Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera. In Fauna of Delhi, State Fauna Series VI, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, 1997, pp. 415–418.
- Larsen, T. B., The butterflies of Delhi, India – an annotated check list (Insecta: Rhophalocera). Esperiana, 2002, 9, 459–479.
- Malik, S., Kaur, M., Joshi, M. and Paul, M., A study on the faunal diversity of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha university campus, Dwarka, New Delhi. In Proceedings of the National conference on Climate Change, Resource Conservation and Sustainable Strategies, School of Environment Management, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi, 2017, pp. 81–86.
- Biswas, J., Dookia, S. and Faisal, M.., Butterflies of Delhi with new additions and an annotated checklist from Delhi, India. Int. J. Zool. Stud., 2017, 2(6), 4–10.
- India State Forest Report, Forest and tree resources in States and Union Territories. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 2015.
- Mohan, M., GIS based integrated approach for monitoring and modelling of hyper urbanization for sustainable development in Delhi. In Proceedings of the Second FIG Regional Conference, Morocco, 2003.
- Census of India, Provisional population totals. Office of Registrar General of India, New Delhi, 2011.
- Mukhopadhyay, A., Mukherjee, S., Garg, R. D. and Ghosh, T., Spatio-temporal analysis of land use–land cover changes in Delhi using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Int. J. Geomat. Geosci., 2013, 4(1), 213–223.
- Dallimer, M., Rouquette, J. R., Skinner, A. M. J., Armsworth, P. R., Maltby, L. M., Warren, P. H. and Gaston, K. J., Contrasting patterns in species richness of birds, butterflies and plants along riparian corridors in an urban landscape. Divers. Distrib., 2012, 18, 742–753.
- Soga, M. and Koike, S., Mapping the potential extinction debt of butterflies in a modern city: implications for conservation priorities in urban landscapes. Anim. Conserv., 2013, 16, 1–11.
- Mallick, J. and Rahman, A., Impact of population density on the surface temperature and micro-climate of Delhi. Curr. Sci., 2012, 102(12), 1708–1713.
- Pollard, E., A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biol. Conserv., 1977, 12(2), 115–134.
- Pollard, E., Skelton, M. J. and Thomas, J. A., A method of assessing the abundance of butterflies in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve. Entomol. Gazette, 1975, 26, 79–88.
- Pollard, E., Van Swaay, C. A. M. and Yates, T. J., Changes in butterfly numbers in Britain and The Netherlands, 1990–91. Ecol. Entomol., 1993, 18(1), 93–94.
- Kehimkar, I., The Book of Indian Butterflies, Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, India, 2013, pp. 1–468.
- Singh, A. P., Butterflies of India, Om Books International, India, 2017, pp. 1–183.
- Smetacek, P., A Naturalist’s Guide to the Butterflies of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, John Beaufoy Publshing Limited and Prakash Books, Delhi, 2017, pp. 1–117.
- Henderson, P. A., Practical Methods in Ecology, Blackwell Publishers, United Kingdom, 2005, pp. 1–148.
- Vijaylaxmi, C., Rajshekhar, M. and Vijaykumar, K., Freshwater fishes distribution and diversity status of Mullameri River, a minor tributary of Bheema River of Gulbarga District, Karnataka. Int. J. Syst. Biol., 2010, 2, 1–9.
- Romos, S., Cowen, R. K., Re, P. and Bordalo, A. A., Temporal and Spatial distribution of larval fish assemblages in the Lima estuary (Portugal). Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 2006, 66, 303–314.
- Harrington, R. and Stork, N. E., Insects in a Changing Environment, Academic Press, United Kingdom, 1995, pp. 431–439.
- Ockinger, E. and Smith, H. G., Landscape composition and habitat area affect butterfly species richness. Oecologia, 2006, 149, 526– 534.
- Ockinger, E., Eriksson, A. K. and Smith, H. G., Effects of grassland management, abandonment and restoration on butterflies and vascular plants. Biol. Conserv., 2006, 133, 291–300.
- Ockinger, E., Dannestam, A. and Smith, H. G., The importance of fragmentation and habitat quality of urban grasslands for butterfly diversity. Landsc. Urban Plan., 2009, 93, 31–37.
- Swanson, M. E., Franklin, J. F., Beschta, R. L., Crisafulli, C. M., DellaSala, D. A. and Hutto, R. L., The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Front. Ecol. Environ., 2011, 9, 117–125.
- Chong, K. Y., Teo, S. Y., Kurukulasuriya, B., Chung, Y. F., Rajathurai, S. and Tan, H. T. W., Not all green is as good: different effects of the natural and cultivated components of urban vegetation on bird and butterfly diversity. Biol. Conserv., 2014, 171, 299–309.
- Van Swaay, C. A. M.., Butterfly densities on line transects in The Netherlands from 1990–2001. Entomol. ber., 2003, 63(4), 82– 87.
- Stock, N. E., Watt, A. D. and Larsen, T. B., Butterfly diversity and silvicultural practice in lowland rainforests of Cameroon. Biodivers. Conserv., 2003, 12, 387–410.
- Tam, K. C. and Bonebrake, T., Butterfly diversity, habitat and vegetation usage in Hong Kong urban parks. Urban Ecosyst., 2016, 19, 721–733.
- Larsen, T. B., Butterflies of West Africa, Apollo Books, Svendborg, Denmark, 2005, pp. 1–595.
- Kuussaari, M., Heliola, J., Luoto, M. and Poyry, J., Determinants of local species richness of diurnal Lepidoptera in boreal agricultural landscapes. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 2007, 122, 366–376.
- Lees, A. D., The Physiology of Diapause in Arthropods, Cambridge University Press, England, 2016, pp. 1–14.
- Dennis, R. L. H., Shreeve, T. G. and Van Dyck, H., Towards a resource-based concept for habitat: a butterfly biology viewpoint. Oikos, 2003, 102, 417–426.
Abstract Views: 3
PDF Views: 0