Open Access Subscription Access
Seismic Behaviour of RC Building with Raft Foundation in the Ganges Basin, India
Many highly populated and important cities of India are situated in the Ganges basin. Deep alluvium deposit of this basin enhances the earthquake vulnerability of these cities due to amplification of seismic energies in the case of an earthquake. Raft foundations are generally provided for critical facility buildings due to their perceived effectiveness against differential settlement during earthquakes. However, the literature available on seismic behaviour of buildings with raft foundation considering soil deformability is relatively limited. In this context, a full three-dimensional finite element model of a four-storeyed building with raft foundation considering the typical layered soil profile of the Ganges basin has been developed in this study. The effects of different seismic parameters on the structural responses and moments induced in the raft have been studied with ground motions from 10 different earthquakes. Since the alluvium deposit of the Ganges basin is prone to get liquefied, effects of liquefaction of soil on the building with raft foundation have been considered simplistically. The results show that the raft foundation reduces the lateral displacement of the structure considerably. However, an increase in the vertical settlement of the raft in case of liquefiable soil is a matter of concern.
Layered Soil Profile, Raft Footing, River Basin, Soil–Structure Interaction.
- Shiuly, A., Kumar, V. and Narayan, J. P., Computation of ground motion amplifica6tion in Kolkata megacity (India) using finitedifference method for seismic microzonation. Acta Geophys., 2014, 62(3), 425–450.
- Shiuly, A. and Narayan, J. P., Deterministic seismic microzonation of Kolkata city. Nat. Hazards, 2012, 60(2), 223–240.
- Govindaraju, L. and Bhattacharya, S., Site-specific earthquake response study for hazard assessment in Kolkata city, India. Nat. Hazards, 2012, 61(3), 943–965.
- Poulos, H. G., Tall building foundations: design methods and applications. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 2016, 1(1), 10.
- Ghosh, B. and Madabhushi, S. P. G., Centrifuge modelling of seismic soil–structure interaction effects. Nucl. Eng. Design, 2007, 237(8), 887–896.
- Bhattacharya, K., Dutta, S. C. and Dasgupta, S., Effect of soilflexibility on dynamic behaviour of building frames on raft foundation. J. Sound Vib., 2004, 274(1–2), 111–135.
- Halkude, S. A., Kalyanshetti, M. G. and Barelikar, S. M., Seismic response of RC frames with raft footing considering soil–structure interaction. Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol., 2014, 4(3), 1424–1431.
- Dutta, S. C. and Roy, R., A critical review on idealization and modeling for interaction among soil–foundation–structure system. Comput. Struct., 2002, 80(20–21), 1579–1594.
- Saha, R., Dutta, S. C. and Haldar, S., Seismic response of soil–pile raft–structure system. J. Civ. Eng. Manage., 2015, 21(2), 144– 164.
- Storie, L., Soil–foundation–structure interaction in the earthquake performance of multi-storey buildings on shallow foundations. Ph D dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand, 2017.
- Cubrinovski, M. and McCahon, I., Foundations on deep alluvial soils. Technical Report, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2011.
- Semblat, J. F., Dangla, P., Kham, M. and Duval, A. M., Seismic site effects for shallow and deep alluvial basins: In-depth motion and focusing effect. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 2002, 22(9–12), 849–854.
- Wardle, L. J. and Fraser, R. A., Methods for raft foundation design including soil–structure interaction. In Symposium on Raft Foundations, Perth, Australia, 1975.
- King, G. J. W. and Chandrasekaran, V. S., Interaction analysis of rafted multistoried space frame resting on the inhomogeneous clay structure. In International Conference on FEM in Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia, 1974.
- King, G. J. W. and Chandrasekaran, V. S., Interactive analysis using a simplified soil model. In International Symposium on Soil–Structure Interaction, Roorkee, 1977.
- Brown, P. T. and Yu, S. K., Load sequence and structure– foundation interaction. J. Struct. Eng., 1986, 112(3), 481–488.
- Tahghighi, H. and Rabiee, M., Influence of foundation flexibility on the seismic response of low-to-mid-rise moment-resisting frame buildings. Scientia Iranica, Transaction A: Civil Engineering, 2017, 24(3), 979–992.
- Seed, H. B., Soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility evaluation for level ground during earthquakes. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. ASCE, 1979, 105(2), 201–255.
- Lombardi, D. and Bhattacharya, S., Modal analysis of pile‐supported structures during seismic liquefaction. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 2014, 43(1), 119–138.
- Macedo, J. and Bray, J. D., Key trends in liquefaction-induced building settlement. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 2018, 144(11), 0401876.
- Ziotopoulou, K. and Montgomery, J., Numerical modeling of earthquake-induced liquefaction effects on shallow foundations. In Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile, 2017.
- Karimi, Z., Bullock, Z., Dashti, S., Liel, A. and Porter, K., Influence of soil and structural parameters on liquefaction-induced settlement of foundations. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Performance-based Design in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (PBD-III), Vancouver, Canada, 2017.
- Wang, H., Guangyun, G. and Jian, S., Numerical study on settlement of building with shallow foundation under earthquake loading. In Geo-Shanghai International Conference, Singapore, 2018, pp. 251–260.
- Kumar, A. and Kumari, S., Numerical modeling of shallow foundation on liquefiable soil under sinusoidal loading. Geotech. Geol. Eng., 2019, 37(2), 517–532.
- Travasarou, T., Bray, J. D. and Sancio, R. B., Soil–structure interaction analyses of building responses during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. In Proceedings of the 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, California, USA, 2006.
- Luque, R. and Bray, J. D., Dynamic analyses of two buildings founded on liquefiable soils during the Canterbury earthquake sequence. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2017, 143(9), 04017067.
- Karimi, Z. and Dashti, S., Seismic performance of shallow founded structures on liquefiable ground: validation of numerical simulations using centrifuge experiments. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2016, 142(6), 04016011.
- Bray, J. D. and Dashti, S., Liquefaction-induced movements of buildings with shallow foundations. In International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, San Diego, California, USA, 2010.
- Johari, A. and Sabzi, A., Reliability analysis of foundation settlement by stochastic response surface and random finite-element method. Scientia Iranica, Transaction A: Civil Engineering, 2017, 24(6), 2741–2751.
- Fotopoulou, S., Karafagka, S. and Pitilakis, K., Vulnerability assessment of low-code reinforced concrete frame buildings subjected to liquefaction-induced differential displacements. Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 2018, 110, 173–184.
- Dashti, S., Toward evaluating building performance on softened ground, Ph D thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2009.
- Sarkar, R., Bhattacharya, S. and Maheshwari, B. K., Seismic requalification of pile foundations in liquefiable soils. Indian Geotech. J., 2014, 44(2), 183–195.
- Sarkar, R., Dutta, S. C., Saw, R. and Singh, J. P., Effect of differential settlement on seismic response of building structure. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Municipal Engineer, 2018, pp. 1–10; doi:https://doi.org/10.1680/jmuen.18.00032.
- Agrawal, P. and Shrikhande, M., Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, PHI Learning Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2006.
- ANSYS, User Manual, version 15.0, Swanson Analysis Systems Inc., Houston, PA, USA, 2015.
- Lysmer, J. and Kuhlemeyer, R. L., Finite dynamic model for infinite media. J. Eng. Mech. Div., 1969, 95, 859–878.
- Japan Road Association. Specifications for highway bridges, Part V: Earthquake resistant design. JRA, 1980.
- Hough, S. E. and Bilham, R., Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra, and 1934 Nepal earthquakes. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 2008, 117(S2), 773–782.
- Boulanger, R. W. and Idriss, I. M., Evaluating cyclic failure in silts and clays. In Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Satellite Conference, Osaka, Japan, 2005.
- Idriss, I. M. and Boulanger, R. W., Semi-empirical procedures for evaluating liquefaction potential during earthquakes. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 2006, 26(2–4), 115–130.
- Brandenberg, S. J., Behavior of pile foundations in liquefied and laterally spreading ground. Ph D thesis, University of California, Davis, USA, 2005.
Abstract Views: 11
PDF Views: 0