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Raw Water Treatment with Cl2 and ClO2:Comparison of Two Major Class of Disinfection By-Products Formation


Affiliations
1 Homi Bhabha National Institute, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India
2 Safety Quality and Resource Management Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India
 

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cellu-lar toxicity of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) that usually form during water treat-ment with chemical chlorine disinfectants such as chlorine and chlorine dioxide. THMs and HAAs formation potential of organic precursor in a surface water source for water treatment with Cl2 and ClO2 was studied with reference to key determinants. It was observed that the concentration of THMs and HAAs formed during ClO2 treatment was significantly lower than that formed during Cl2 treatment concentration that formed during chlorination. HAAs, dominated with bromo-HAAs were predominantly formed with a negligible amount of THMs during ClO2 treatment. The combined total of HAAs and THMs formed dur-ing chlorine dioxide treatment was only 10–21% of that formed for chlorination. Among the HAAs spe-cies, dibromoacetic acid accounted for 86% of total HAAs during chlorine dioxide treatment whereas di-chloroacetic acid (36.7%) followed by dibromoacetic acid (20.4%) and bromochloroacetic acid (16.9%) were major constituent formed during chlorination. Species shift towards more toxic bromo-HAAs may pose a concern on shifting water treatment from chlo-rine to chlorine dioxide, particularly for bromide-containing water.

Keywords

Chlorination Byproducts, Chlorine Dioxide, Disinfection Byproducts, Haloacetic Acids, Trihalome-Thanes.
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  • Raw Water Treatment with Cl2 and ClO2:Comparison of Two Major Class of Disinfection By-Products Formation

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Authors

R. K. Padhi
Homi Bhabha National Institute, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India
Suja Subramanian
Safety Quality and Resource Management Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India
K. K. Satpathy
Homi Bhabha National Institute, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India

Abstract


Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cellu-lar toxicity of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) that usually form during water treat-ment with chemical chlorine disinfectants such as chlorine and chlorine dioxide. THMs and HAAs formation potential of organic precursor in a surface water source for water treatment with Cl2 and ClO2 was studied with reference to key determinants. It was observed that the concentration of THMs and HAAs formed during ClO2 treatment was significantly lower than that formed during Cl2 treatment concentration that formed during chlorination. HAAs, dominated with bromo-HAAs were predominantly formed with a negligible amount of THMs during ClO2 treatment. The combined total of HAAs and THMs formed dur-ing chlorine dioxide treatment was only 10–21% of that formed for chlorination. Among the HAAs spe-cies, dibromoacetic acid accounted for 86% of total HAAs during chlorine dioxide treatment whereas di-chloroacetic acid (36.7%) followed by dibromoacetic acid (20.4%) and bromochloroacetic acid (16.9%) were major constituent formed during chlorination. Species shift towards more toxic bromo-HAAs may pose a concern on shifting water treatment from chlo-rine to chlorine dioxide, particularly for bromide-containing water.

Keywords


Chlorination Byproducts, Chlorine Dioxide, Disinfection Byproducts, Haloacetic Acids, Trihalome-Thanes.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18520/cs%2Fv117%2Fi8%2F1354-1357