Open Access Subscription Access
Raw Water Treatment with Cl2 and ClO2:Comparison of Two Major Class of Disinfection By-Products Formation
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cellu-lar toxicity of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) that usually form during water treat-ment with chemical chlorine disinfectants such as chlorine and chlorine dioxide. THMs and HAAs formation potential of organic precursor in a surface water source for water treatment with Cl2 and ClO2 was studied with reference to key determinants. It was observed that the concentration of THMs and HAAs formed during ClO2 treatment was significantly lower than that formed during Cl2 treatment concentration that formed during chlorination. HAAs, dominated with bromo-HAAs were predominantly formed with a negligible amount of THMs during ClO2 treatment. The combined total of HAAs and THMs formed dur-ing chlorine dioxide treatment was only 10–21% of that formed for chlorination. Among the HAAs spe-cies, dibromoacetic acid accounted for 86% of total HAAs during chlorine dioxide treatment whereas di-chloroacetic acid (36.7%) followed by dibromoacetic acid (20.4%) and bromochloroacetic acid (16.9%) were major constituent formed during chlorination. Species shift towards more toxic bromo-HAAs may pose a concern on shifting water treatment from chlo-rine to chlorine dioxide, particularly for bromide-containing water.
Chlorination Byproducts, Chlorine Dioxide, Disinfection Byproducts, Haloacetic Acids, Trihalome-Thanes.
- Krasner, S. W. et al., Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, 40, 7175–7185.
- Al-Bloushi, M., Saththasivam, J., Jeong, S., Amy, G. L. and Leiknes, T. O., Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers. J. Water Process Eng., 2017, 20, 1–7.
- Padhi, R. K., Satpathy, K. K. and Subramanian, S., Impact of groundwater surface storage on chlorination and disinfection by-product formation. J. Water Health, 2015, 13, 838.
- Mouly, D. et al., Variations in trihalomethane levels in three French water distribution systems and the development of a predictive model. Water Res., 2010, 44, 5168–5179.
- Richardson, S. D., Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Schoeny, R. and Demarini, D. M., Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: A review and roadmap for research. Mutat. Res., 2007, 636, 178–274.
- USEPA, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Final rule. Federal Register, 2006, pp. 399–493.
- Ammar, T. A., Abid, K. Y., El-Bindary, A. A. and El-Sonbati, A. Z., Chlorine dioxide bulk decay prediction in desalinated drinking water. Desalination, 2014, 352, 45–51.
- Padhi, R. K., Subramanian, S. and Satpathy, K. K., Formation, distribution, and speciation of DBPs (THMs, HAAs, ClO2- and ClO3-) during treatment of different source water with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Chemosphere, 2019, 218, 540–550.
- Gordon, G., Slootmaekers, B., Tachiyashiki, S. and Delmer, W. W. I., Minimizing chlorite ion and chlorate ion in water treated with chlorine dioxide. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 1990, 82, 160–165.
- Westerhoff, P., Chao, P. and Mash, H., Reactivity of natural organic matter with aqueous chlorine and bromine. Water Res., 2004, 38, 1502–1513.
- Zhang, H., Qu, J., Liu, H. and Wei, D., Characterization of dissolved organic matter fractions and its relationship with the disinfection by-product formation. J. Environ. Sci., 2009, 21, 54–61.
- Padhi, R. K., Subramanian, S., Mohanty, A. K. and Satpathy, K. K., Comparative assessment of chlorine reactivity and trihalomethanes formation potential of three different water sources. J. Water Process Eng., 2019, 29, 100769.
- Padhi, R. K., Sowmya, M., Mohanty, A. K., Bramha, S. N. and Satpathy, K. K., Formation and speciation characteristics of brominated trihalomethanes in seawater chlorination. Water Environ. Res., 2012, 84, 2003–2009.
- Rajamohan, R., Vinnitha, E., Venugopalan, V. P. and Narasimhan, S. V., Chlorination by-products and their discharge from the cooling water system of a coastal electric plant. Curr. Sci., 2007, 93, 1608–1612.
- Golea, D. M., Upton, A., Jarvis, P., Moore, G., Sutherland, S., Parson, S. A. and Judd, S. J., THM and HAA formation from NOM in raw and treated surface waters. Water Res., 2017, 112, 226–235.
- Yang, X., Shang, C. and Westerhoff, P., Factors affecting formation of haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloropicrin and cyanogen halides during chloramination. Water Res., 2007, 41, 1193–1200.
- Zhang, H., Dong, H., Adams, C., Qiang, Z., Luan, G. and Wang, L., Formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlor(am)ination of aquarium seawater. J. Environ. Sci., 2015, 33, 116–124.
- Hong, H., Xiong, Y., Ruan, M., Liao, F., Lin, H. and Liang, Y., Factors affecting THMs, HAAs and HNMs formation of Jin Lan Reservoir water exposed to chlorine and monochloramine. Sci. Total Environ., 2013, 444, 196–204.
- Regli, S. et al., Estimating potential increased bladder cancer risk due to increased bromide concentrations in sources of disinfected drinking waters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49, 13094–13102.
- Yu, H.-W., Oh, S.-G., Kim, I. S., Pepper, I., Snyder, S. and Jang, A., Formation and speciation of haloacetic acids in seawater desalination using chlorine dioxide as disinfectant. J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 2015, 26, 193–201.
- Al-Otoum, F., Al-Ghouti, M. A., Ahmed, T. A., Abu-Dieyeh, M. and Ali, M., Disinfection by-products of chlorine dioxide (chlorite, chlorate, and trihalomethanes): Occurrence in drinking water in Qatar. Chemosphere, 2016, 164, 649–656.
- Pereira, J. T. et al., Comparing the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum in water from Parana State, Southern Brazil. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2008, 151, 464–473.
Abstract Views: 0
PDF Views: 0