Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Application of ICP-MS Technique for Analysis of Heavy Metals in LD Slag Fines


Affiliations
1 Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur - 831007, India
2 FME Department, and Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad - 826004, India
3 Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad - 826004, India
 

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is a powerful tool for analysing trace metals in environmental samples, industrial wastes and samples of biogenic nature. In the present study, this technique has been used to analyse the content of heavy metals in trace levels which specifically include elements like lead, cadmium, selenium and arsenic in LD slag fines. LD slag is the waste generated during the Linz– Donawitz steel making process or the basic oxygen furnace process. LD slag fines in the size range 0–6 mm are obtained after the recovery of metallic iron by means of physical separation in waste recycling plants, and are mostly recycled in sinter-making process. The non-metallic portion of LD slag fines is generally used as an aggregate in road construction, in acid mine drainage treatment and as an acidic soil conditioner. All these applications require a thorough analysis of trace and heavy metals as they can leach and penetrate into the soil and potentially contaminate it. The present study addresses this issue by analysing heavy metals in traces levels using ICP-MS. The analysis reveals that most of the heavy and hazardous elements are present in very low concentrations in the slag itself when compared with the EPA maximum allowed concentration in the leachate samples. However, the concentration of mercury in LD slag is more than the limit set by EPA in the leachate, and leachability of mercury needs to be studied further. The study also reveals that there are traces of platinum and palladium in the slag, indicating the requirement of future studies to understand their economic recovery.

Keywords

Heavy Metals, LD Slag, Mass Spectrometry, Fires, Steel Making.
User
Notifications
Font Size

  • Ashrit, S., Banerjee, P. K., Ghosh, T. K., Rayasam, V. and Nair, U. G., Characterisation of LD slag fines by X-ray diffraction. Metall. Res. Technol., 2015, 112, 502.
  • Mahieux, P. Y., Aubert, J. E. and Escadeillas, G., Utilization of weathered basic oxygen furnace slag in the production of hydraulic road binders. Constr. Build. Mater., 2009, 23, 742–747.
  • Xue, Y., Wu, S., Hou, H. and Zha, J., Experimental investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag used as aggregate in asphalt mixture. J. Hazard. Mater., 2006, 138, 261–268.
  • Wu, S., Xue, Y., Ye, Q. and Chen, Y., Utilization of steel slag as aggregates for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Build. Environ., 2007, 42, 2580–2585.
  • Shen, D. H., Wu, C. M. and Du, J. C., Laboratory investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag for substitution of aggregate in porous asphalt mixture. Constr. Build. Mater., 2009, 23, 453–461.
  • Motz, H., In Proceedings of the 3rd European Slag Conference, Brusssels, Belgium, 2003, pp. 120–123.
  • Mack, B. and Gutta, B., An analysis of steel slag and its use in acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. In National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Bilings, MT, Revitalizing the Environment: Proven Solutions and Innovative Approaches (ed. Barnhisel, R. I.), ASMR, 3134 Motavesta Rd., Lexington, KY 40502, 30 May–5 June 2009.
  • Pinto. C. G. and Gomes, J. F. P., Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags. Rev. Metall. (Paris), 2006, 42, 409–416.
  • Gahan, C., Cunha, M. and Sandstrom, A., Comparative study on different steel slags as neutralizing agent in bioleaching. Hydrometallurgy, 2009, 95, 190–197.
  • Ziemkiewicz, P., Steel slag: applications for AMD control. In Proceedings of the Conference on Hazardous Waste Research, Morgantown, WV 26505-6064, 1998, pp. 44–62.
  • Langova, S. and Matysek, D., Zinc recovery from steel-making wastes by acid pressure leaching and hematite precipitation. Hydrometallurgy, 2010, 101, 171–173.
  • Proctor, D., Physical and chemical characteristics of blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace, and electric arc furnace steel industry slags. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2000, 34, 1576–1582.
  • Pinto, M., Rodriguez, M., Besga, M., Balcazar, N. and Lopez, F. A., Effects of Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag on soil properties and pasture production in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). N.Z. J. Agric. Res., 1995, 38, 143–155.
  • Marr, I. L., Kluge, P., Main, L., Margerin, V. and Lescop, C., Digests or extracts? – Some interesting but conflicting results for three widely differing polluted sediment samples. Mikrochim. Acta, 1995, 119, 219.
  • Krause, P., ErbsloEh, B., NiedergesaEu, R., Pepelnik, R. and Prange, A., Comparative study of different digestion procedures using supplementary analytical methods for multielementscreening of more than 50 elements in sediments of the river Elbe. Fresenius. J. Anal. Chem., 1995, 353, 3.
  • Tsolakidou, A., Garrigos, J. B. I. and Kilikoglou, V., Assessment of dissolution techniques for the analysis of ceramic samples by plasma spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2002, 474, 177–188.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods, EPA SW-846, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1986, 3rd edn.

Abstract Views: 11

PDF Views: 1




  • Application of ICP-MS Technique for Analysis of Heavy Metals in LD Slag Fines

Abstract Views: 11  |  PDF Views: 1

Authors

Shrenivas Ashrit
Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur - 831007, India
Ravikrishna V. Chatti
Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur - 831007, India
S. Sarkar
Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur - 831007, India
R. Venugopal
FME Department, and Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad - 826004, India
G. Udayabhanu Nair
Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad - 826004, India

Abstract


Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is a powerful tool for analysing trace metals in environmental samples, industrial wastes and samples of biogenic nature. In the present study, this technique has been used to analyse the content of heavy metals in trace levels which specifically include elements like lead, cadmium, selenium and arsenic in LD slag fines. LD slag is the waste generated during the Linz– Donawitz steel making process or the basic oxygen furnace process. LD slag fines in the size range 0–6 mm are obtained after the recovery of metallic iron by means of physical separation in waste recycling plants, and are mostly recycled in sinter-making process. The non-metallic portion of LD slag fines is generally used as an aggregate in road construction, in acid mine drainage treatment and as an acidic soil conditioner. All these applications require a thorough analysis of trace and heavy metals as they can leach and penetrate into the soil and potentially contaminate it. The present study addresses this issue by analysing heavy metals in traces levels using ICP-MS. The analysis reveals that most of the heavy and hazardous elements are present in very low concentrations in the slag itself when compared with the EPA maximum allowed concentration in the leachate samples. However, the concentration of mercury in LD slag is more than the limit set by EPA in the leachate, and leachability of mercury needs to be studied further. The study also reveals that there are traces of platinum and palladium in the slag, indicating the requirement of future studies to understand their economic recovery.

Keywords


Heavy Metals, LD Slag, Mass Spectrometry, Fires, Steel Making.

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.18520/cs%2Fv115%2Fi5%2F973-977