Open Access Subscription Access
Ranking Mediterranean-Type Shrubs and Trees by their Allelopathic Activity is Not Independent of How Extract Concentration is Expressed
Water extracts from 19 Mediterranean-type shrubs and trees were screened for phytoactivity on germination of lettuce. The existing model for the effects of pH and osmotic pressure on germination requires refitting. Extract concentrations were expressed as plant fresh weight, plant dry weight and extract dry weight, and final ranking of the six phytoactive species was found to strongly depend on the way the concentrations are expressed. This methodological issue requires consideration when designing allelopathic bioassays. Extract dry weight is conceptually the most adequate way to express concentration and should be used, despite the increase in time and labour it requires.
Allelopathy, Extract Concentration, Germination, Osmotic Pressure.
- Molisch, H., Der Einfluß Einer Pflanze auf die Andere. Allelopa-thie, Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1937.
- Weidenhamer, J. D., Morton, T. C. and Romeo. J. T., Solution volume and seed number: often overlooked factors in allelopathic bioassays. J. Chem. Ecol., 1987, 13, 1481–1491.
- Sinkkonen, A., Modelling the effect of autotoxicity on density-dependent phytotoxicity. J. Theor. Biol., 2007, 244, 218–227.
- Pellisier, F., Improved germination bioassays for allelopathy research. Acta Physiol. Plant., 2013, 35, 23–30.
- Macías, F. A., Castellano, D. and Molinillo, J. M. G., Search for a standard phytotoxic bioassay for allelochemicals. Selection of standard target species. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 2512–2521.
- Aslani, F. et al., Variation in the phytotoxic activity of Tinospora tuberculata extracts as influenced by solvent type and chemical profile. Curr. Sci., 2016, 110, 228–234.
- Dias, A. S., Pereira, I. P. and Dias, L. S., Investigating and modeling the combined effects of pH and osmotic pressure on seed germination for use in phytoactivity and allelopathic research. Plant Biosyst., 2016, 151, 657–664.
- An, M., Johnson, I. R. and Lovett, J. V., Mathematical modeling of allelopathy: biological response to allelochemicals and its interpretation. J. Chem. Ecol., 1993, 10, 2379–2388.
- Weidenhamer, J. D., Hartnett, D. C. and Romeo, J. T., Density-dependent phytotoxicity: distinguishing resource competition and allelopathic interference in plants. J. Appl. Ecol., 1989, 26, 613–624.
- Rietveld, W. J., Phytotoxic grass residues reduce germination and initial root growth of ponderosa pine. USDA Forestry Service Research Paper, RM-153. Fort Collins, 1975.
- Draper, N. R. and Smith, H., Applied Regression Analysis, 3rd edn, Wiley, New York, USA, 1998.
- Robinson, A. P. and Froese, R. E., Model validation using equivalence tests. Ecol. Model., 2004, 176, 349–358.
- Efron, B., The Jackknife, the Bootstrap and other Resampling Plans, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, USA, 1982.
- Ury, H. K., A comparison of four procedures for multiple comparisons among means (pairwise contrasts) for arbitrary sample sizes. Technometrics, 1976, 18, 89–97.
- Evenari, M., Germination inhibitors. Bot. Rev., 1949, 15, 153– 194.
- Chou, C. H. and Young, C. C., Effects of osmotic concentration and pH on plant growth. Taiwania, 1974, 19, 157–165.
- Angelini, L. G., Carpanese, G., Cioni, P. L., Morelli, I. Macchia, M. and Flamini, G., Essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae as weed germination inhibitors. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 6158–6164.
- Bagavathy, S. and Xavier, G. S. A., Effects of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus globulus on germination and seedling growth of sorghum. Allelopath. J., 2007, 20, 395–401.
- Demetzos, C., Angelopoulou, D. and Perdetzoglou, D., A comparative study of the essential oils of Cistus salviifolius in several populations of Crete (Greece). Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2002, 30, 651–665.
- Andrade, D., Gil, C., Breitenfeld, L., Domingues, F. and Duarte, A. P., Bioactive extracts from Cistus ladanifer and Arbutus unedo. Ind. Crop Prod., 2009, 30, 165–167.
- Asllani, U., Chemical composition of Albanian myrtle oil (Myrtus communis L.). J. Essent. Oil Res., 2000, 12, 140–142.
- Lebreton, P. and Gallet, C., Les communautes vegetales sont bio-chimiquement organisees. Acta Bot. Gallica, 2007, 154, 573–595.
- Iason, G. R. et al., Plant secondary metabolite polymorphisms and the extended chemical phenotype. In The Ecology of Plant Secondary Metabolites. From Genes to Global Processes (eds Iason, G. R., Dicke, M. and Hartley, S. E.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2012, pp. 247–268.
- Bagnoli, F., Fineschi, S. and Loreto, F., Volatile isoprenoids and abiotic stress. In The Ecology of Plant Secondary Metabolites. From Genes to Global Processes (eds. Iason, G. R., Dicke, M. and Hartley, S. E.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2012, pp. 101–119.
- Ammar, H., Lopez, S. and Gonzsalez, J. S., Assessment of the digestibility of some Mediterranean shrubs by in vitro techniques. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 2005, 119, 323–331.
- Arroyo, J., Aparicio, A., Albaladejo, R. G., Munoz, J. and Braza, R., Genetic structure and population differentiation of the Medi-terranean pioneer spiny broom Calicotome villosa across the Strait of Gibraltar. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 2008, 93, 39–51.
- Harborne, J. B., Chemosystematics of the Leguminosae. Flavonoid and isoflavonoid patterns in the tribe Genisteae. Phytochemistry, 1969, 8, 1449–1456.
- Dessi, M. A. et al., Antioxidant activity of extracts from plants growing in Sardinia. Phytother. Res., 2001, 15, 511–518.
- Pistelli, L., Fiumi, C., Morelli, I. and Giachi, I., Flavonoids from Calicotome villosa. Fitoterapia, 2003, 74, 417–419.
Abstract Views: 7
PDF Views: 1