Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Factors behind Access to Latrine in India:An Application of Multinomial Logistic Regression Model
This paper attempts to find out the factors that influence the owning of a latrine. For this purpose, unit level NSSO data of 69th round, collected exclusively to get an idea of this, has been used. On the extracted unit data, Multinomial Logistic Regression Model has been applied. Different sets of socio-economic and governance indicators are chosen as the predictors. Based on the available questions, the type of latrine has been divided into three categories-latrine exclusively use for household. Second one clubs different types of latrines to form as fixed point latrines. The third one is categorised as no latrine. In running MLR, no latrine is considered as reference category. All the predictors, starting from religion, region, location, caste and economic conditions have positive and significant impact on owning a latrine. Therefore, the latrine problem, usually being typed as only traditional and cultural problem, needs to look from holistic angle and it is recommended that while designing public policy all these factors are considered to mitigate the problem.
- Andres Luis A., Bertha Briceño, Claire Chase, and Juan A. Echenique (2014), Sanitation and Externalities Evidence from Early Childhood Health in Rural India, Policy Research Working Paper 6737, The World Bank, South Asia Region, Sustainable Development Unit and Sustainable Development Network Water and Sanitation Program, January 2014.
- Coffey, Diane, Aashish Gupta, Payal Hathi, Dean Spears, Nikhil Srivastav and Sangita Vyas (2017), Understanding Open Defecation in Rural India: Untouchability, Pollution, and Latrine Pits, Economic and Political Weekly, 52(1): 59-66.
- Coffey, Diane, Aashish Gupta, Payal Hathi, Nidhi Khurana, Dean Spears, Nikhil Srivastav and Sangita Vyas (2014), Revealed Preference for Open Defecation Evidence from a New Survey in Rural North India, Economic and Political Weekly, XLIX(49): 43-55, September.
- Das Gupta, M., R. Shukla, T.V. Somanathan and K.K. Datta (2009), How Might India’s Public Health Systems Be Strengthened?, Policy Research Working Paper 5140, The World Bank Development Research Group, Human Development and Public Services Team, November.
- Doron, Assa and Robin Jeffrey (2014), Open Defecation in India, Economic and Political Weekly, XLIX(49): 72-78, December.
- Dreze, Jean and Amartya Sen (2012), Putting Growth in its Place, Yojana, 56: 35-40, January.
- ---------- (2013), An Uncertain Glory: India and Its Contradictions, Allen Lane, Penguin Group, New Delhi.
- Esrey, S.A., J.B. Potash, L. Roberts and C. Schiff (1991), Effects of Improved Water Supply and Sanitation on Ascariasis, Diarrhoea, Dracunculiasis, Hookworm Infection, Schistosomiasis, and Trachoma, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 69(5): 609-621.
- Fewtrell, L., R.B. Kaufmann, D. Kay, W. Enanoria, L. Haller and J.M. Colford Jr, (2005), Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions to Reduce Diarrhoea in Less Developed Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(1): 42-52.
- Geruso, Michael and Dean Spears (2014), Sanitation and Health Externalities: Resolving the Muslim Mortality Paradox, University of Texas at Austin Working Paper.
- Ghosh, A. (2015), Status of Preventive Health Care in Bihar: A District Level Study, Journal of Health Management, 17(2): 178-194, June.
- Government of India (2001 and 2011), Census of India (2001 and 2011), Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
- Mishra, S. (2005), Public Health Scenario in India, India Development Report (2004-05), Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, edited by Kirti S. Parikh and R. Radhakrishna, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
- Mukesh and N. Srivastava (2015), Impact of Socio‐Economic Background on School Dropout Rates in Rural India, Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, Volume: xxix, No. 1, pp. 29‐36, January.
- Pruss-Ustun, Annette, Robert Boss, Fiona Gore and Jamie Bartram (2008), Safer Water, Better Health, Geneva: World Health Organisation.
- Sinhathambu, A. (2004), Coping with Poverty in the Health Sector: Evidence from Public Spending in Thailand, Asia-Pacific Development Journal, 11(2): 33-58, December.
- UNDP (2006), Human Development Report 2006: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis, New York United Nation Development Programme (UNDP).Pub
Abstract Views: 14
PDF Views: 0