Open Access Subscription Access
Open Access Subscription Access
Effect of Conflict levels on Organisational Learning: An Indian Study
Conflict can be a prospect for learning in an organisation. It has been identified as a key element in group and organisational learning. Conflict has been shown as a motivator in creating shared understandings which ultimately leads to organisational learning.A broad review on existing literature has shown that conflict arises at personal, Organisational and group levels. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of conflict levels on organisational learning. The study was completed by taking into account hundred samples consisting of senior and middle level managers from various Indian organisations selected at random. Standardized Scale on the two variables known as organisational Conflict Scale (OCS) and organisational Learning Diagnostics (OLD) have been used. Statistical techniques like Regression and Correlation Analysis by using SPSS 17.0 have been applied to gain knowledge about the relationship between the two study variables. The results have shown that the organisations under study are learning in terms of building competencies and there exists a negative correlation between conflict and organisational learning. The study has got implications for all those organisations where managing conflict is not considered as an integral part of organisational performance. The management of conflict at all the three levels is necessary by taking into consideration various strategies and styles which can be adopted to reduce or minimize the conflict so that Organisational goals can be attained.
Organisational Conflict, Group Conflict, Individual Conflict, Organisational Learning, Effectiveness
- Ackoff, R.L. (1983). Beyond Prediction and Preparation. Journal of Management Studies, 20 (1), 59-69.
- Amason, A.C. Hochwarter, W.A. and Thompson, K.R. (1995). Conflict: An important dimension in successful team management. Organisational Dynamics, 24, 20-35.
- Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the Effects of Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict on Strategic Decision Making: Resolving a Paradox for Top Management Teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (1), 123-148.
- Anderson, N., De Dreu, C. K. and Nijstad, B. A. (2004). The routinization of innovation research: A constructively critical review of the state of the science. Journal of Organisational Behavior, 25, 147-173.
- Argyris, C. and Schon, D. (1978). Organisational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
- Argyris, C. and Schon, D. (1996). Organisational learning–II. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
- Bercovitch, J. (1983). Conflict and conflict management in organisations: A framework for analysis.Asian Journal of Public Administration, 104-123.
- Bhat, A.B. Rangnekar, S. and Barua, M.K. (2012). Relationship of Conflict Management Levels and Leadership Styles: A study in Indian Manufacturing Sector. New Delhi: Excellent Publishing House.
- Bisno, H. (1988). Managing Conflict, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing.
- Boardman, S.K. and Horowitz, S.V. (1994). Constructive conflict management styles of the bankers. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 22 (1), 59-78.
- Carley, K. and Prietula, M. (1995). Computational Organisation Theory; Lawrence Erlbaum,13 (1), 89-111.
- Conger, J.A. and Kanungo, R.N. (1988). The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13 (3), 471-482.
- Coser, L. (1967). Continuities in the Study of Social Conflict. New York: The Free Press.
- Crossan, M. Lane, H.W. and White, R.E. (1999). An organisational learning framework: from intuition to institution. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 522-537.
- De Dreu and Carsten, K. W. (1997). Productive Conflict: The Importance of Conflict Management and Conflict Issues. In Carsten K. W. De Dreu and Evert Van De Vliert (Eds.), Using Conflict in Organisations, London: Sage, 9-22.
- De Dreu, C. K. W., Harinck, F. and Van Vianen, A. E. M. (1999). Conflict and performance in groups and organisations. In C. L. Cooper and I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organisational psychology, 14, Chichester, UK: Wiley, 376 – 405.
- DeDreu, C. K. W. (2006). When Too Little or Too Much Hurts: Evidence for a Curvilinear Relationship between Task Conflict and Innovation in Teams. Journal of Management, 32(1), 83– 107.
- Deetz, P.S (1997). Disciplines of Organisational Learning: Contributions and Critiques, Human Relations , 50, 1085-1113.
- Degeus, A.P. (1988). Planning as learning. Harvard Business Review, 66, 70–74.
- Desivilya,H.S. Somech, A. and Lidgoster, H. (2010). Innovation and Conflict Management in Work Teams: The Effects of Team Identification and Task and Relationship Conflict, International Association for Conflict Management and Wiley Periodicals, 3(1), 28-48.
- Dhar, U. and Dhar, S. (2003). Organisational Conflict Scale, Agra, India: National Psychological Corporation.
- Eisenhardt, K., Kahwajy, J. and Bourgeois, L.J. (1997). How management teams can have a good fight, Harvard Business Review, Cambridge, Mass.
- Erev, I., Bornstein, G. and Galili, R. (1993). Constructive intergroup competition as a solution to the free rider problem: A field experiment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29 (6), 463-478.
- Etheredge ,L. M. (1981).Government learning: An overview in Long, S.L (ed.). The Handbook of Political Behavior, 2, New York, NY: Pergamon.
- Etheredge, L.M. and Short, J. (1983). Thinking about government learning. Journal of Management Studies, 20 (1), 41-58.
- Fiol, M.C. and Lyles, M.A. (1985). Organisational learning. Academy of Management Review, 10, 803-813.
- Glance, N. and Huberman, B. (1994). The dynamics of social dilemmas. Scientific American, 76-81.
- Gross, A.M. and Guerrero,L.K. (2000). Managing conflict appropriately and effectively: an application of the competence model to Rahim's organisational conflict styles. International Journal of Conflict Management, 11(3), 200 – 226.
- Guetzkow, H. and Gyr, J. (1954). An analysis of conflict in decision making groups. Human Relations, 7, 367-381.
- Hamel, G. and Prahalad C.K. (1994). Competing for the Future. Harvard Business School Press. Boston, Massachusetts.
- Hartline, M.D. and Ferrell,O.C.(1996). The management of customer-contact service employees: an empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing, 60 (4), 52-70.
- Hayes, R.H. and Weelwright, S.C. (1984). Restoring our Competitive Edge: Competing Through Manufacturing, New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
- Hedberg, B. (1981). How Organisations learn and unlearn, in Nyström, P.C. and Starbuck. W.H. Handbook of Organisational Design, 1, 3-27, Oxford University Press.
- Hodgetts,, M.R. Luthans, F. and Lee, M.S. (1994). New paradigm organisations: From total quality to learning to world class. Organisational Dynamics (Winter), 5-19.
- Jameson, J.K. (1999). Toward a comprehensive model for the assessment and management of intra organisational conflict: developing the framework. International Journal of Conflict Management, 10 (3), 268 – 294.
- Jangard,H. (1975). Organisational learning in the educational system. Nordisk Psykologi, 27(3), 174-183.
- Jehn, K.A. (1995). A multi method examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup Conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256-282.
- Jehn and Mannix, E.A (2001). The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: A Longitudinal Study of Intragroup Conflict and Group Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (2), 238-251.
- Johnson, P. and Evans, J. (1997). Power, communicator styles, and conflict management styles: a web of interpersonal constructs for the school principal. International Journal of Education Reform, 6 (1), 40-53.
- Kahn, R.L. Wolf, D.M. Quinn, R.P. Snoek, J.D. and Rosenthal, R.A. (1964). Organisational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: Wiley.
- Katz, R. (1977). The influence of group conflict on leadership effectiveness. Organisation Behaviour and Human Performance, 20, 265-286.
- Kiechel,W. (1990). The organisation that learns. Fortune, 12, 133-136.
- Kogut, B. and Zander, U. (1993). Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation, Journal of International Business Studies, 24(4), 625- 646.
- Kriesberg, L. (1973). The Sociology of Social Conflicts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Langelaan, S. Bakker, A.B. Doornen, L.J.P and Schaufeli, W.B.(2006). Burnout and work engagement: Do individual differences make a difference? Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 521-532
- Lewicki, R. J. Weiss,S.E and Lewin, D .(1992). Models of Conflict, Negotiation, and Third Party Intervention: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Organisational Behavior, 13 (2), 209- 252.
- Luthans, F. Rubach, M. J. Marsnik, P. (1995). Going beyond total quality: the characteristics, techniques and measures of learning organisations. International Journal of Organisational Analysis, 3, 22-44.
- March, J.G., and Simon, H.A. (1958). Organisation. New York: Wiley.
- Michael, S. X., Xie, J. and Barbara Dyer. (2000). Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Managers’ Conflict-Handling Behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 64 (1), 50-66.
- Morse, P.and Ivey, A. (1996). Face to Face: Communication and Conflict Resolution in the Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Mukhtar, U. (2008). Is Organisational Learning about Conflict Management important or not in Organisational Effectiveness in Tertiary Education? The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 6(3), 41-54.
- Nemeth, C. J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological Review, 93 (1), 23-32.
- Nemeth, C. J. Personnaz, B . Personnaz, M and Goncalo, J. A. (2004). The Liberating Role of Conflict in Group Creativity: A Study in two Countries. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34(4), 365–374.
- Nonaka, I. (1991). The knowledge-creating company, Harvard Business Review, 69, 96-104.
- Pareek, U. (2002). Training Instruments in HRD and OD. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
- Perrow, C. (1986). Complex Organisations: A Critical Essay (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
- Pondy, L.R. (1967). Organizational conflict: concepts and models. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12(2), 296-320.
- Pruitt, D. G. and Carnevale, P. J. (1993). Negotiation in social conflict. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Company.
- Rahim, M. A. (2002).Toward a theory of managing organisational conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 13 (3), 206-235.
- Renwick, P.A. (1975). Impact of topic and source of disagreement on conflict management. Organisational Behavoiur and Human Decision Processes, 14 (1), 416-425.
- Rico, L. (1964).Organisational Conflict: A Framework for Reappraisal. Industrial Management Review, 5 , 67-80.
- Robbins, S.P. (1974). Managing Organisational Conflict: A Non- Traditional Approach. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
- Schein, E. H. (1993). How can organisations learn faster? The challenge of entering the green room. Sloan Management Review, 35(2), 85–92.
- Senge, P. (1990). The leaders. New work: Building learning organisations. Sloan Management Review, 32 (1), 7-23.
- Souder, W. (1987). Managing New Product Innovation. MA: Lexington Books, Lexington.
- Song, X. M. Jinhong X. and Barbara D. (2000). Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Managers’ Conflict-Handling Behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 64 (1), 50-66.
- Stata, R. (1989). Organisational learning: the key to management innovation, Sloan Management Review, 30 (Spring), 63–74.
- Starbuck, William H. and Paul C. Nystrom (1981). Why the world needs organisational design. Journal of General Management, 6 (3), 3–17.
- Swieringa, J. and Wierdsma, A. F. M. (1990). Op weg naar een lerende organisatie. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhof.
- Thomas, K. (1976). Conflict and conflict management in Dunnette M. (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
- Thomas, K.W. (1992). Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations. In M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (Eds.). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2nd Ed. 651-717). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
- Thomas, K.W. and Schmidt, W.H.(1976). A Survey of Managerial Interests with Respect to Conflict. Academy of Management Journal, 19 (2), 315-318.
- Van de Vliert, E. and De Dreu, C. K. (1994). Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation. International Journal of Conflict Management, 5(3), 211-222.
- Van Sell, M. Brief, A.P. and Schuler, R.S. (1981). Role conflict and role ambiguity: Integration of the literature and directions for future research. Human Relations, 34(1), 43-71.
- Wall, J. and Callister, R. (1995). Conflict and its management.. Journal of Management, 21 (3), 515 –558.
- Wang, G. Jing, R. and Klossek, A. (2007). Antecedents and management of conflict International Journal of Conflict Management, 18(1), 74-88.
- Zaltman, G., Duncan, R. and Holbek, J. (1973). Innovations and organisations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Abstract Views: 366
PDF Views: 0