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The design of a proportional, derivative, and integral (PID) based power system stabilizer (PSS) is carried out using the bat algorithm (BA). The design of proposed PID controller is considered with an objective function based on square error minimization to enhance the small signal stability of nonlinear power system for a wide range of operating conditions. Three benchmark power system models as single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) power system, two-area four-machine ten-bus power system, and IEEE New England ten-machine thirty-nine-bus power system are considered to examine the effectiveness of the designed controller. The BA optimized PID based PSS (BA-PID-PSS) controller is applied to these benchmark systems, and the performance is compared with controllers reported in literature. The robustness is tested by considering eight plant conditions of each system, representing the wide range of operating conditions. It includes unlike loading conditions and system configurations to establish the superior performance with BA-PID-PSS over-the-counter controllers.
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