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National Breast Cancer Mortality and Incidence Rates According to the Human Development Index:An Ecological Study


Affiliations
1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran, Islamic Republic of
2 Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran, Islamic Republic of
3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran, Islamic Republic of
4 Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
5 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
6 Shaheed Chamran Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
7 BSc in Operating Room, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran, Islamic Republic of
 

Background: This study aimed to identify the role of human development index (HDI) in the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer (BC) worldwide. Methods: Data on the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of BC for 184 countries were obtained from the GLOBOCAN. Data about the HDI and other indices were obtained from the World Bank Report 2013. Linear regression model was used for assessment the effect of HDI on BC occurrence rates. Results: In 2012, BCs were estimated to have affected a total of 1,671,149 individuals (crude rate: 47.8 per 100,000 individuals), and caused 521,907 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 14.7 per 100,000 individuals). Nearly half of total female BC cases (46.3%) with the highest risk of incidence (age-standardized Rate (ASR): 128 per 100,000) had occurred in very high HDI regions. The most proportion of the mortality burden was in low HDI and medium HDI areas. Linear regression analyses showed a direct significant correlation between the incidence of BC and HDI at the global level (B = 104.5, P < 0.001). The mortality rate of BC was not significantly associated with HDI (B = 3.26, P = 0.160). Conclusion: Our study showed that the burden of female BC is enormous in very high HDI and low HID regions. Targeted interventions have the ability to reduce this number significantly through resource-dependent interventions. Moreover, further reductions in mortality could be brought about by increasing access to curative treatment for patients with BC.

Keywords

Breast Cancer, Human Development Index, Incidence, Age-Standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates.
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  • National Breast Cancer Mortality and Incidence Rates According to the Human Development Index:An Ecological Study

Abstract Views: 184  |  PDF Views: 26

Authors

Salman Khazaei
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Shahab Rezaeian
Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Zaher Khazaei
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Leila Molaeipoor
Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Shahrzad Nematollahi
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Parvaneh Lak
Shaheed Chamran Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Somayeh Khazaei
BSc in Operating Room, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Abstract


Background: This study aimed to identify the role of human development index (HDI) in the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer (BC) worldwide. Methods: Data on the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of BC for 184 countries were obtained from the GLOBOCAN. Data about the HDI and other indices were obtained from the World Bank Report 2013. Linear regression model was used for assessment the effect of HDI on BC occurrence rates. Results: In 2012, BCs were estimated to have affected a total of 1,671,149 individuals (crude rate: 47.8 per 100,000 individuals), and caused 521,907 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 14.7 per 100,000 individuals). Nearly half of total female BC cases (46.3%) with the highest risk of incidence (age-standardized Rate (ASR): 128 per 100,000) had occurred in very high HDI regions. The most proportion of the mortality burden was in low HDI and medium HDI areas. Linear regression analyses showed a direct significant correlation between the incidence of BC and HDI at the global level (B = 104.5, P < 0.001). The mortality rate of BC was not significantly associated with HDI (B = 3.26, P = 0.160). Conclusion: Our study showed that the burden of female BC is enormous in very high HDI and low HID regions. Targeted interventions have the ability to reduce this number significantly through resource-dependent interventions. Moreover, further reductions in mortality could be brought about by increasing access to curative treatment for patients with BC.

Keywords


Breast Cancer, Human Development Index, Incidence, Age-Standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates.